Disney celebrates Black history with food, art and entertainment

ExploreDisney’s Genie park planner launches. Here’s how it works

Black culture also includes food, so be sure to look for “Cooking with Soul” menu items — spotlighting authentic dishes and the talented chefs who create them — throughout Walt Disney World Resort, including EPCOT and Disney’s Animal Kingdom.

And while you’re shopping for your obligatory pair of mouse ears to wear home, you can pick up writings by Muhammad Ali, Maya Angelou and other inspiring members of the Black community at Sugarboo & Co.

You can find a detailed list of artists, foods and merchandise on the Disney Parks blog.

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Slowly, Black writers began contributing to the scripts, including Richard Pryor and Paul Mooney, who penned stories on Pan-Africanism, interracial marriage and traffic court, which became an early and scathing attack on the criminal justice system."},{"_id":"PRLL2UVWBJF4FO2MGGW3RCDXIA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643144213224},"type":"text","content":"That is partly why Mayo allows his 2-year-old son to watch “Sanford and Son,” which is still heavy in syndication."},{"_id":"5TIWGO3HKZCHDF3OPL7222P6DA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1642716394625},"type":"text","content":"Whitman Mayo, who was younger than his 46-year-old son is now when he played Fred’s geriatric best friend, patterned the gentle, yet forgetful Grady after his own grandfather. 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The prevailing legal opinion at the time was that public facilities and schools that were racially “separate but equal” were constitutional. The Clarks sought to challenge that mindset by testing whether African-American children were psychologically and emotionally damaged by attending segregated schools."},{"_id":"6MGJSNCCPRERLGIQ3TTX6ALIEU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643744590297},"type":"text","content":"Known as “doll tests,” black children were placed in a room with two dolls before them — one black and one white."},{"_id":"OM4ZLKGVV5EFFLBRUEVRMJQS5I","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643744590298},"type":"text","content":"The children were asked a series of questions:"},{"_id":"TCO4KE7ULZDEBCZ4G2Q4AUXLYE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643744590299},"type":"text","content":"Which doll is pretty? Which doll is ugly? Which doll is bad? Which doll is good? 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Kenneth Clark revealed later that some of the children stormed out of the room and became “emotionally upset at having to identify with the doll that they had rejected.”"},{"_id":"YYVXBXY6HNAUTCGXWON5VDMMFQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643744590301},"type":"text","content":"Overwhelmingly, these black children, the product of segregated schools and environments, showed a preference for dolls with white skin."},{"_id":"GZV5IOPSVRGRHE5ZQ4VFCJ6EXA","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"OW57VXNVAFDSRA5ARF5FB3RL2E"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"Articles about health and wellness in the Black community from the AJC","url":"https://www.ajc.com/news/bhm-2022-health-wellness/"},{"owner":{"id":"ajc"},"workflow":{"status_code":4},"caption":"Dr. Kenneth B. Clark (shown here in 1965) and his wife, Mamie Clark, were psychologists who developed the “doll study” to explore self-identification in black children. Associated Press","source":{"system":"Methode","source_type":"other","source_id":"451723aa-1f80-11e9-81d7-c13ec212be9b","additional_properties":{"editor":"photo center"}},"type":"image","distributor":{"mode":"reference","reference_id":"8aec2b8c-455c-4816-903d-79fc8fdf8019"},"version":"0.10.3","url":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/543M2ZDYYJXBJS4656ZKRX23IA.jpg","licensable":false,"display_date":"2019-02-01T05:01:00Z","credits":{},"subtitle":"Mamie and Kenneth Clark’s doll test challenged attitudes on segregation","width":2048,"first_publish_date":"2019-02-01T05:01:00Z","_id":"543M2ZDYYJXBJS4656ZKRX23IA","additional_properties":{"fullSizeResizeUrl":"/resizer/mdMhGptH3eGZ6A2lswb26hgK3zM=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/543M2ZDYYJXBJS4656ZKRX23IA.jpg","comments":[],"proxyUrl":"/resizer/mdMhGptH3eGZ6A2lswb26hgK3zM=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/543M2ZDYYJXBJS4656ZKRX23IA.jpg","takenOn":"2019-02-01T05:01:00Z","originalUrl":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/543M2ZDYYJXBJS4656ZKRX23IA.jpg","published":true,"resizeUrl":"/resizer/mdMhGptH3eGZ6A2lswb26hgK3zM=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/543M2ZDYYJXBJS4656ZKRX23IA.jpg","thumbnailResizeUrl":"/resizer/EP9YJOw_Zy_92JW8cJXDJBOUBak=/300x0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/543M2ZDYYJXBJS4656ZKRX23IA.jpg","version":0,"originalName":"https://www.ajc.com//rw/Pub/p10/AJC/2019/02/01/Images/newsEngin.23611698_020119-BHM-Doll-Test.jpg","mime_type":"image/jpeg","restricted":false,"galleries":[],"_id":"WQSJPOQCFNAF3CZLBRNDGAWSLI","publicationStartDate":"2019-02-01T05:01:00Z"},"created_date":"2020-06-27T08:52:02Z","last_updated_date":"2020-06-27T08:52:02Z","publish_date":"2019-02-01T05:01:00Z","height":1374},{"_id":"FCZ3KCEUVZBHNBK635CZNVSTUQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643744590303},"type":"text","content":"Sigrid Y. Elston, a licensed psychologist who studied the doll tests while getting her doctorate at the University of Georgia, said it is inconceivable how influential the study was in showing the impact of segregation and how it harmed the psyche of black children."},{"_id":"PUKRJTGD45F3XF3GYLZAEDTP2Y","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643744590304},"type":"text","content":"“In measuring children’s attitudes about color and the thoughts, images and perceptions associated with certain colors, it is very clear. Color plays a certain role and it is amazing how early kids start to pick up on it,” Elston said. “As early as (racial segregation) is introduced, you notice that (white children) get the better things. Better books. Better schools.”"},{"_id":"32FV6QW6WJD2HPLTZGJRCQ5OVM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643744590305},"type":"text","content":"The Clarks offered the results as proof of the pernicious effects of segregation. They wrote that even before the children could fully articulate their feelings about race, they were already damaged by a sense of inferiority."},{"_id":"W6VPAL6HD5CVJLCTVHS5FPJ7EI","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"HLULRDH7LFD4BJTOYUP6DKVX2Q"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"8-year-old Atlanta girl creates dolls to inspire, motivate Black children","url":"https://www.ajc.com/news/8-year-old-atlanta-girl-creates-products-to-inspire-motivate-black-children/CB6MGYWGJJB5DEMFOMRUOFGZAA/"},{"_id":"5TXKIATJ7ZDJHLFURIZNUP5MKI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643744590306},"type":"text","content":"“These children saw themselves as inferior and they accepted the inferiority as part of reality,” Kenneth Clark said. “Color in a racist society was a very disturbing and traumatic component of an individual’s sense of his own self-esteem and worth.”"},{"_id":"IRAFQNQAIVED5DNL2UWVVA7ZCA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643744590307},"type":"text","content":"Yet the Clarks were so upset by the heartbreaking results that they delayed publishing their conclusions."},{"_id":"SHJV4YHI5VARJP66FHCLZBPCEE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643744590308},"type":"text","content":"When the NAACP and Marshall learned of the Clarks’ experiments — Mamie Clark had done work within the civil rights movement — they asked the couple to replicate the tests in Clarendon County, S.C., as part of a case that would eventually be rolled into Brown v. Board of Education."},{"_id":"SQXPVLWIQRC5XF5Z6XUTAKQOYA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643744590309},"type":"text","content":"Marshall dismissed concerns that the justices would be offended by the inclusion of the doll tests, and legal scholars have argued about the ultimate impact of the tests on the court’s unanimous decision. But Chief Justice Earl Warren, in his opinion, wrote: “To separate (black children) from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone.”"},{"_id":"G43DG3MO3BGZFJAMVND2UPI73Q","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643744590310},"type":"text","content":"“These doll tests were something practical, something tangible for the public at large to grasp on it,” said Matt C. Pinsker, a professor of constitutional law at Virginia Commonwealth University. “It was not an abstract idea and it struck a chord with the American people that you have these innocent children who are showing through their own skin color the fallacy of separate but equal.”"},{"_id":"PMIM44HNFRBGHCL734EEAZTM7E","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643744590311},"type":"text","content":"Over the past few years, several psychologists and news organizations have tried to replicate the tests. 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Valenciano counts each shot in an arm as a small victory."},{"_id":"QLCR2CTSSFHZRGQPVPMD6GB5QQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154081},"type":"text","content":"Vaccine hesitancy, misinformation, racial disparities in access to health care and distrust in institutions remain some of the biggest hurdles to vaccinating Black Georgia residents against COVID-19. Public health officials and advocacy groups have worked hard over the past year to make inroads with marginalized communities and those efforts have started to show promising signs."},{"_id":"DBLRTMEPDVH6HNYGQMYSLH47OA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154082},"type":"text","content":"The gap between Black Georgians who have taken the shot and the rest of the state has narrowed."},{"_id":"TKGGL45RTFGRTA3PSIFQ7C4GFM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154084},"type":"text","content":"“COVID-19 is essentially here to stay,” said Valenciano, district director of the DeKalb County Board of Health. “If you are fully vaccinated, and you are eligible for the booster, get your booster. If you’re not vaccinated getting your vaccine protects you and it helps protect your community.”"},{"_id":"C27GCI4RI5EVFIT6YV4DRDSXF4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154085},"type":"text","content":"But progress is slow going, and too few Georgians are vaccinated, public health experts say."},{"_id":"OLEKA5LDENGLZL2A44WTDTNETQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154086},"type":"text","content":"The state remains one of the least vaccinated in the country. That’s why Valenciano and others continue to push community outreach, campaigns to combat misinformation and mobile clinics across Georgia as a way to close racial and ethnic gaps."},{"_id":"CAVIZAS7GBEA5KQLJBX7R3QMSM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154087},"type":"text","content":"The rate of Black Georgians who have been vaccinated with at least one shot (52.3%) has essentially caught up to the rate of whites (53%)."},{"_id":"AN7ZNDBWYRCTXBSFSTMGXGPRKU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154088},"type":"text","content":"The rates for both races are about 10 points below the overall state average. Hispanics (55%), Native Americans (69.7%) and Asian Americans (94.9%) are all higher, state Department of Public Health data from Wednesday show."},{"_id":"5TA6Y7MSLNEJFFHAHYRCV7TERY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154089},"type":"text","content":"Two years into the pandemic and even with the uptick in vaccinations among Blacks, the coronavirus continues to have a disproportionate effect on them."},{"owner":{"sponsored":false,"id":"ajc"},"address":{"locality":"Atlanta"},"caption":"New Georgia Project regional organizer Brandt Lewis, right, talks to volunteers at the start of the vaccination clinic at the Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church on Martin Luther King, Jr. Day. 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And they are more likely to work in higher risk front-line jobs and have co-morbidities that COVID-19 exploits."},{"_id":"TWFC7ODGWJBLPNRG4JIYCNYUSY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154092},"type":"text","content":"“COVID just magnifies the pre-existing situation we’ve had all along with health disparities and inequities,” said Dr. Lilly Immergluck, a professor and director of the Pediatric Clinical & Translational Research Unit at Morehouse School of Medicine. “Pick what you want – testing and access to testing, prevention measures, it goes on and on and on.”"},{"_id":"AYXAGFHGGBF7RNRPC3URXRDAOY","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"FMBW2R3XTFCHXD5ZMXYA7ZGXKU"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"Complete coverage of COVID-19 in Georgia","url":"https://www.ajc.com/news/coronavirus/"},{"_id":"DRBAGK6SV5BK7BLF7CHEO5XIZI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154094},"type":"text","content":"Though severe disease in children is rare, Black children also are more likely to be hospitalized and to develop a rare complication following infection known as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children or MIS-C. Studies have shown children of color are also more likely to have lost a parent or caregiver to COVID-19 than white children."},{"_id":"QWIVBCFVT5GEXPKTPIQMFRJAFE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154095},"type":"text","content":"When COVID-19 first struck Georgia, the disease hit communities of color particularly hard. By the end of June 2020, several months into the pandemic, Blacks, who represent about a third of Georgia residents, accounted for about half of hospitalizations and deaths."},{"_id":"N5NF6QMX3NBPVOHQBF2VQH2ERI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154096},"type":"text","content":"The demographics of COVID-19 death and hospitalizations have shifted more towards white Georgians since the initial waves. African Americans now account for about 44% of COVID-19 hospitalizations and about a third of coronavirus deaths since the start of the pandemic."},{"content_elements":[{"_id":"OPI6Z6JBCFGBJBF7W3BBLIIQ7U","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[]},"type":"text","content":"“COVID just magnifies the pre-existing situation we’ve had all along with health disparities and inequities.”"}],"citation":{"type":"text","content":"Dr. Lilly Immergluck, a professor and director of the Pediatric Clinical & Translational Research Unit at Morehouse School of Medicine"},"subtype":"pullquote","_id":"BYXP6MOX5FGKZNCXDEWBOQFXCY","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"QPIXPRP5XFDPZFQ3PRYGNZAYWI"},"type":"quote"},{"_id":"LATVIRNRK5E2VOLIH5OYLWQ7NM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643914242425},"type":"text","content":"Covington pediatrician Dr. Samira L. Brown said knowing COVID-19 risk factors in the homes of her patients has become one of the core parts of her practice. Given the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on Black families, a large part of the discussion is about vaccinating children and their families."},{"_id":"MZBARUGPPJBIJCN7JE57BHZ7BE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154100},"type":"text","content":"Brown said many of her patients don’t know about new COVID-19 treatments beyond vaccines and still struggle to access testing. Nationally, access to antiviral pills and monoclonal antibody therapies is also unequal, a recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report showed."},{"_id":"S5XXRLDNXJEMNGIEPFPB4BY6ZQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154101},"type":"text","content":"“Trust and access are huge issues especially for the black community,” she said."},{"_id":"TFCNH3SNGNAYTC6GZBBJIBUOVM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154102},"type":"text","content":"Friends Killed by Virus"},{"_id":"S34HSXEUINAKDCVHDHEEQRYEMM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154103},"type":"text","content":"Few areas suffered more than Hancock County, one of Georgia’s historic Black Belt counties that was once filled with cotton plantations. The county is northeast of Milledgeville with roughly 8,700 residents, 71% of whom are Black."},{"_id":"XGAYYB6QENFURKRQMZJIHXCADQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154104},"type":"text","content":"Hancock has the country’s third highest death rate from COVID-19, according to U.S. data. It also ranks near the bottom in rankings of health outcomes statewide."},{"_id":"476EGBRELBFYJE3JFZCDVJMQOM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154105},"type":"text","content":"It is one of Georgia’s poorest counties and its health care system reflects that. The county’s small hospital in Sparta closed two decades ago and Hancock is served by two full-time doctors and a third who practices part-time in the county. Hancock has only two ambulances."},{"owner":{"sponsored":false,"id":"ajc"},"address":{},"syndication":{},"caption":"Hancock County Coroner Adrick Ingram said his small county has been hit hard by COVID over the past two years. Losing friends to the disease has been tough and taken its toll.","source":{"system":"photo center","name":"AJC","edit_url":"","source_type":"staff","additional_properties":{"editor":"photo center"}},"taxonomy":{"associated_tasks":["61e1e71622f8e72b1e8f4208"]},"type":"image","distributor":{"mode":"reference","reference_id":"8aec2b8c-455c-4816-903d-79fc8fdf8019"},"version":"0.10.3","url":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/G3LBZS5L5BDXDOTNEDPXSNCPLY.jpg","licensable":false,"credits":{"affiliation":[],"by":[{"name":"Handout","type":"author","byline":"Handout"}]},"subtitle":"Hancock County Coroner Adrick Ingram","width":521,"_id":"G3LBZS5L5BDXDOTNEDPXSNCPLY","additional_properties":{"fullSizeResizeUrl":"/resizer/kGQSuS5_R_W_czAfWe3NbYn_13I=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/G3LBZS5L5BDXDOTNEDPXSNCPLY.jpg","owner":"[email protected]","comments":[],"proxyUrl":"/resizer/kGQSuS5_R_W_czAfWe3NbYn_13I=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/G3LBZS5L5BDXDOTNEDPXSNCPLY.jpg","originalUrl":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/G3LBZS5L5BDXDOTNEDPXSNCPLY.jpg","published":true,"resizeUrl":"/resizer/kGQSuS5_R_W_czAfWe3NbYn_13I=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/G3LBZS5L5BDXDOTNEDPXSNCPLY.jpg","ingestionMethod":"manual","thumbnailResizeUrl":"/resizer/6HooArB66nzahHWrwrDj8NW7fnE=/300x0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/G3LBZS5L5BDXDOTNEDPXSNCPLY.jpg","version":1,"originalName":"Adrick Ingram.jpg","mime_type":"image/jpeg","restricted":false,"template_id":594,"galleries":[],"_id":"GTSRM2JDGBHPLB4LT7MIRI27JM"},"created_date":"2022-02-03T21:30:56Z","last_updated_date":"2022-02-03T21:32:44Z","height":521,"image_type":"photograph"},{"_id":"G2K73DCB5FGFPNM3R5SOKZWD54","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154106},"type":"text","content":"All of it has taken its toll on Adrick Ingram, owner of a funeral home and the county coroner. He has seen death from COVID-19 closer than anyone. And it’s worn him down."},{"_id":"MWKZOFTVFRFF5KJUW2KC4KL4TU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154107},"type":"text","content":"“Seeing people that I know, literally I know, that have passed from COVID when I walk through the door,” he said."},{"_id":"QCZEAZJ7AZDQFE74PK42IIKZFY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154108},"type":"text","content":"The virus has killed friends, and people who supported Ingram’s campaign when he was first elected in 2016. Ingram succeeded his father, who was the first Black coroner in Georgia and served in Hancock for 41 years."},{"_id":"MWKZOFTVFRFF5KJUW2KC4KL4TU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154109},"type":"text","content":"Ingram said after the stress from the pandemic, he no longer plans to seek a third term in 2024."},{"_id":"YGEDC2BLSVBYRLJDUMDEB4BODM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643914242436},"type":"text","content":"He is one of the community leaders who tries to encourage people to get the shot."},{"_id":"5HVXFCSDBVEYRILBY37LDPTNYQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643914242437},"type":"text","content":"“I think a lot of the deaths could have been prevented,” he said."},{"_id":"WD4JEVHWIRCIDDIIDKQUL2DDJY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154111},"type":"text","content":"Skepticism Persists"},{"_id":"5HQ34UN5Q5ASTKOEFJBHYCSQF4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154112},"type":"text","content":"The vaccine rollout in Georgia has slowed considerably since peaking last March."},{"_id":"TSIJNU6XHVFXXPBKZPJTVC6NKY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154113},"type":"text","content":"Those eligible individuals who were eager for the shot have largely gotten it. Children under 5 are not yet eligible for vaccine."},{"_id":"DUSWEB2ZNBHEDAIR4SZXQVY2UA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154114},"type":"text","content":"The statewide vaccination effort relies on a constellation of pharmacies, health departments, federal health centers, private medical practices and non-profits."},{"_id":"US24QSWGMVFDFA3RZ4QHXWNKDE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154115},"type":"text","content":"In DeKalb, state data show 47% of African Americans have received at least one dose, That’s about 15 percentage points below the overall average for the county and for all Georgians, and five points lower than the rate among Blacks statewide."},{"_id":"VKXHUFXX6VB2TOTNLKMNUODRLU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154116},"type":"text","content":"But the county has shown improvement."},{"_id":"A4G77VLACFGQRL5WS63EO7FFCQ","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"PYG5RG2VPRCODBDIYXSIKMUVKA"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"From 2021: COVID-19 exposes Black community's long history of housing instability","url":"https://www.ajc.com/news/atlanta-news/covid-19-exposes-the-black-communitys-long-history-of-housing-instability/AHJFTOZNDBGJBH2QPMWMS5NQOA/"},{"_id":"XLFRKNW7KBGFTK2PSSNUJSNC7U","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154117},"type":"text","content":"The DeKalb Board of Health operates a vaccine site at the Doraville MARTA station and four health centers across the county. The county health department pivoted to offering vaccines at civic events and mobile clinics in partnership with community groups."},{"_id":"OKA4JA6EUJDOZK3DIUGOYJNTVY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154118},"type":"text","content":"Much of the focus has been on South DeKalb, home to the highest percentages of the county’s African American population, as well as some of the county’s highest rates of obesity, diabetes, heart disease and other co-morbidities. South DeKalb is also home to some of the county’s lowest rates of vaccination."},{"_id":"ZCMDR5QINRAB7BXIUD6AUY3IPU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154120},"type":"text","content":"“Sometimes that first conversation doesn’t lead to a vaccination,” said Valenciano, the DeKalb Board of Health leader. “Sometimes we’re there the next week and the person comes back, and they get their shot.”"},{"_id":"243TYAFTGFHTXNBFABM7KCOWEM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154121},"type":"text","content":"The New Georgia Project, a nonpartisan voter registration group founded nearly a decade ago by Democratic gubernatorial candidate Stacey Abrams, has added vaccinations to its outreach efforts. NGP, which often partners with faith groups, offers health screenings, COVID-19 testing and shots through partner organizations at many of its events."},{"_id":"KSR63NUMRZFLDBDRZCRAOGPBHQ","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"W2Q63OBPP5AF5BDXWVR2TFTFKQ"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"From 2020: Distrust of healthcare system adds to toll in rural Black communities gutted by COVID","url":"https://www.ajc.com/news/coronavirus/distrust-of-healthcare-system-adds-to-toll-in-rural-black-communities-gutted-by-covid/SOO6UWMIBZHPTN7DMK3ZHCNQMI/"},{"_id":"T56PSXRO7FAITKS6HQ5TX2XADU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154122},"type":"text","content":"These events often start the conversations about vaccination, said Brandt Lewis, director of NGP’s vaccination program, and NGP follows up with mailers and texts to help people schedule shots."},{"_id":"2SKH234SJVHCLMVXBQQ64ZES5Q","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154123},"type":"text","content":"The reasons some haven’t gotten vaccinated are nuanced, he said. Some say they can’t take time off work or fear side effects might sideline them from their job or make it difficult to care for children after they get their shots."},{"_id":"OWGFMXFVE5EIFFJGU7GR2RBN5U","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154125},"type":"text","content":"Some African Americans remain skeptical, invoking a federal government-backed “Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male” decades ago in which scientists withheld treatment from Black men who had syphilis to see how the disease would progress."},{"owner":{"id":"ajc"},"workflow":{"status_code":4},"caption":"Participants in the Tuskegee syphilis study (National Archives)","source":{"system":"Methode","source_type":"other","source_id":"c796dc12-0c3f-11e8-b668-5532aa6a67c8","additional_properties":{"editor":"photo center"}},"taxonomy":{"associated_tasks":["61e1e71622f8e72b1e8f4208"]},"type":"image","distributor":{"mode":"reference","reference_id":"8aec2b8c-455c-4816-903d-79fc8fdf8019"},"version":"0.10.3","url":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/BTN6TNEQWTBIB6DPPVML223I4Y.jpg","licensable":false,"display_date":"2018-02-07T19:47:50Z","credits":{},"subtitle":"At Tuskegee, U.S. experimented on black men with syphilis for 40 years","width":2048,"first_publish_date":"2018-02-07T19:47:50Z","_id":"BTN6TNEQWTBIB6DPPVML223I4Y","additional_properties":{"fullSizeResizeUrl":"/resizer/EmsKYj2s7OGCFIhwc-G6S_v-q3s=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/BTN6TNEQWTBIB6DPPVML223I4Y.jpg","comments":[],"proxyUrl":"/resizer/EmsKYj2s7OGCFIhwc-G6S_v-q3s=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/BTN6TNEQWTBIB6DPPVML223I4Y.jpg","takenOn":"2018-02-07T19:47:50Z","originalUrl":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/BTN6TNEQWTBIB6DPPVML223I4Y.jpg","published":true,"resizeUrl":"/resizer/EmsKYj2s7OGCFIhwc-G6S_v-q3s=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/BTN6TNEQWTBIB6DPPVML223I4Y.jpg","thumbnailResizeUrl":"/resizer/Q-8v87Mkf7pxBMoEk30934BxfoU=/300x0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/BTN6TNEQWTBIB6DPPVML223I4Y.jpg","version":1,"originalName":"https://www.ajc.com//rw/Pub/p9/AJC/2018/02/07/Images/newsEngin.20864607_Tuskegee-syphilis-study.jpg","mime_type":"image/jpeg","restricted":false,"galleries":[],"_id":"OTDCJZMRWVCRBOGVAVRWMNSXUI"},"created_date":"2020-06-28T14:23:26Z","last_updated_date":"2022-02-03T22:10:23Z","publish_date":"2018-02-07T19:47:50Z","height":1149},{"_id":"IRUMOXBLCZHEROZJJ5JGUGC6DI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154126},"type":"text","content":"But Lewis said NGP stresses the facts about the “Tuskegee Experiment,” as it is better known, that care was denied, and the COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective."},{"_id":"X6XM73HCSFEYLOZNUC5A7NYIQY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154127},"type":"text","content":"On Martin Luther King Jr. Day last month, six attendees at a day of service event rolled up their sleeves and got their boosters, Lewis said."},{"_id":"EEFFMEMQS5HVZNUXUBNQVPVTOA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643911154128},"type":"text","content":"“In my line of business, that’s a good day,” he said."}],"display_date":"2022-02-07T18:47:29.610Z","headlines":{"basic":"Racial gap for COVID vaccinations narrowing in Georgia "},"first_publish_date":"2022-02-04T11:00:03.203Z","taxonomy":{"sections":[{"path":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","parent":{"default":"/news"},"_website":"ajc","parent_id":"/news","name":"Black History Month","description":"Learn about black history and the story of the civil rights movement in Atlanta, the birthplace of Martin Luther King Jr. From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.","_id":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","additional_properties":{"original":{"parent":{"AmpNav":"/news","default":"/news","BottomNav":null,"SectionMap":"https://www.ajc.com/","ComposerNav":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"site":{"section_comments_enabled":"Yes","site_description":"Learn about black history and the story of the civil rights movement in Atlanta, the birthplace of Martin Luther King Jr. From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.","site_title":"Black History Month"},"navigation":{"nav_title":"Black History Month"},"inactive":false,"node_type":"section","_website":"ajc","name":"Black History Month","_id":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","ancestors":{"AmpNav":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"default":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"BottomNav":[],"SectionMap":["https://www.ajc.com/"]},"order":{"AmpNav":2016,"default":2016,"SectionMap":1133,"ComposerNav":1093}}},"_website_section_id":"ajc./news/martin-luther-king-jr","type":"section","version":"0.6.0"},{"path":"/news","parent":{"default":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"_website":"ajc","parent_id":"https://www.ajc.com/","name":"News","description":"Atlanta Georgia News main page: Breaking News, Atlanta Weather Forecast, Crime, Politics, GA Schools, Local Articles - 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She was the only student. Her teacher was Barbara Henry, a Boston native who was the only member of the staff willing to accept a Black student."},{"_id":"JJ7LAIORFNGKPFAVXK5ZKJVD3I","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170510},"type":"text","content":"While most white parents had pulled their children out of the school, a few violated the boycott, and sent the young ones back to the school in the following days. The white students were kept apart from Ruby, but every now and then she would hear the sound of young voices."},{"_id":"DDMREW3CGFELVHI226KLFLAPCM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170511},"type":"text","content":"“I would mention it to Mrs. Henry,” Ruby Bridges Hall said in an interview from 2018 with the Norman Rockwell Museum. “I’d say ‘Mrs. Henry I hear kids!’ And she would never say anything.”"},{"_id":"B5GRWJ55LZCVHABOXFGWGACJEI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170512},"type":"text","content":"That strange limbo finally ended when her teacher, aware that the principal was illegally keeping the white students separate, insisted that they be allowed to see each other."},{"_id":"IVGBWJHV6ZEBLNQUQ2MUTB6X5A","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170513},"type":"text","content":"The solitary confinement that marked Ruby’s first year at school passes understanding, said Nicole Moore, director of education at the Center for Civil and Human Rights."},{"_id":"ITKAJ6ICQ5CUPFWQU7MLAW6GVE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170514},"type":"text","content":"Moore said “You can’t look forward to sitting next to your friend because there is no friend to sit next to. No recess. An essential part of her childhood experience was taken from her.”"},{"_id":"IFS2MEIM3BBVROAWX4FY65QVV4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170515},"type":"text","content":"Ruby wasn’t the only Black child integrating white schools in New Orleans that year, but she went through her experience alone."},{"owner":{"sponsored":false,"id":"ajc"},"copyright":"© 2000 Atlanta Journal-Constitut","address":{"locality":"NEW YORK","region":"NY"},"syndication":{},"caption":"This fall Ruby Bridges, who was the first black child to attend the all-white William Frantz Public School in New Orleans, will publish a new children's book about her experiences, "I Am Ruby Bridges." 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Board of Education. (Later Ernest would become New Orleans’ first Black mayor.)"},{"_id":"AROYXYW3FJF23IA2Y2YCE6HWZI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170517},"type":"text","content":"Their children integrated a Catholic school in New Orleans, and Sybil Morial said “years later they told me some of the things they had to hear. They had to run home sometimes, or take another route home.”"},{"_id":"MJUSY6K3FZG23MZQWXD7BEPGTE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170518},"type":"text","content":"Was it traumatic for them? “They said to me it made them strong.”"},{"_id":"D6X7JTMRPBCKJHZYMTX7QWF5JM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170519},"type":"text","content":"In interviews, Ruby Bridges Hall often downplays the emotional impact of her experiences as a six-year-old. (She has said the crowds of protesters on the street outside her school reminded her of Mardi Gras.)"},{"_id":"4UODCWEYBFHNPCSAKFDR27XP5Q","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170521},"type":"text","content":"But former Ambassador Andrew Young’s 2009 documentary film, “How We Got Over,” offers a clear image of the times."},{"_id":"3GAXNEEOKNAPDHPI3LDHNRESMA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170522},"type":"text","content":"In the film, Young interviews Ray Moore, who at the time was WSB television news director, and includes some footage from Moore’s contemporaneous reports out of New Orleans."},{"_id":"QAXLSPGMHFG27IAUTWELX2H5RI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643806089875},"type":"text","content":"In a news report from in front of Ruby’s school, Moore tells the camera, “One woman’s mouth twisted as she saw a little six-year-old Negro child, a white bow in her hair, walk into William Frantz school this morning. The woman said ‘Look at that black slimy thing.’”"},{"_id":"6YISC4FJBFCERBNSEKW7CS6PLY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170525},"type":"text","content":"Years later Young caught up with Moore, who explained that, as news director, he assigned himself the story in New Orleans on purpose."},{"_id":"F3BU7XJZVVDMZJXZP6L7XL6B44","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170526},"type":"text","content":"“I sent myself,” he told Young, “because I wanted this community to face up to desegregation.”"},{"_id":"LURTWM3CQVGBXCC3QP5WALUE24","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170527},"type":"text","content":"When Moore recalled the scene in New Orleans, his memories were even more chilling than the television segments. “Some of the white women were saying ‘Spit on her! Spit on her!’ as that little Black child went by,” he told Young, “and some of them did spit on her. And the names they called and all the gosh-awful nasty things they did were really revolting.”"},{"_id":"XDF7KY5EHJARRF3TNOWDYT5C4I","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170528},"type":"text","content":"The late Dr. Robert Coles, author and Harvard professor who in 1960 had just finished serving in the army as a military psychologist, observed the events in New Orleans, and they changed the course of his life."},{"_id":"PCAQJJ6WEJBBBMBTW5ZP5FTXVM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170529},"type":"text","content":"He offered to provide counseling to Ruby and her family and met with them many times over the course of the next year. He wrote extensively about the children of the Civil Rights movement in “Children of Crisis” and “The Spiritual Life of Children” and eventually wrote the children’s book “The Story of Ruby Bridges,” contributing the proceeds to the Ruby Bridges Foundation."},{"_id":"RDERNV7VIZFBVM4MXKDNBZNGP4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170530},"type":"text","content":"In an interview from the time period, Coles recalls an incident that he has recounted many times. Ruby’s teacher tells him that she has seen Ruby pause on the stairs of the school and speak to the protesters."},{"_id":"HHOU2J5NUVGY5N5JJXE6STLZE4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170531},"type":"text","content":"When he asks the child about this, she tells him she wasn’t speaking to the protesters, she was talking to God."},{"_id":"JINWXGPJTJAMVMQVSGMT5PQCUA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170532},"type":"text","content":"“Why were you praying to God?” he asks her."},{"_id":"Y6I62C37IBBTFDKY25WOPE64RA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170533},"type":"text","content":"“I was praying for the people in the street.”"},{"_id":"TWVISQ7Z5VFDPOH2XJVFWUDX5Q","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170534},"type":"text","content":"“I said ‘Ruby why would you want to pray for those people?’ And she looked at me and her eyes widened and she said ‘Don’t you think they need praying for?’ That stopped me cold.”"},{"_id":"N646ICSECBFL7MR7ESVVIGZX5I","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170535},"type":"text","content":"Scholastic will publish a new book by Bridges, “I Am Ruby Bridges,” this fall. According to the publisher, the book will provide “a personal and intimate look through a child’s lens at an experience that changed the face of history and the trajectory of the Civil Rights movement.”"},{"_id":"I64M6HOBANCDHOW2YGCQBV2XWM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170537},"type":"text","content":"Today Ruby Bridges Hall speaks to children everywhere about her walk through the gantlet. She was inspired she said by the famous Norman Rockwell portrait of six-year-old Ruby, “The Problem We All Live With,” that originally appeared in Look magazine."},{"_id":"FNRTV2HGEZCVVH2RNBTMEJ2ZZA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643832170538},"type":"text","content":"“Once I saw that painting I knew that there was something much bigger than myself that I needed to pursue and be involved in,” she told the Norman Rockwell Museum in 2018. “So I think that sort of put me on my quest to tell my story and work with kids. Which is what I do today.”"},{"_id":"D3KDTEIPQRD3RNAFTHWV2QNLZE","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"B34TLN4UWZEZZODVY3V462IU3Q"},"type":"divider"},{"_id":"FMRZUFQ3UZBLJNDDELWMSH7YA4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643147608791},"type":"text","content":"BLACK HISTORY MONTH"},{"_id":"E6BJ66T4ZZF47IF2TWNBCG4G2A","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643674143590},"type":"text","content":"This year, the AJC’s Black History Month series will focus on the role of health and wellness in the Black community. In addition to the traditional stories that we do on African American pioneers, these pieces will run in our Living and A sections every day this month. 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In 2014 a statue in her likeness was unveiled on the campus. (AP Photo/File)","type":"image","url":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/PLOTZZ5VVZBXPGRBY4Z2GZT7LQ.jpg","height":1996}},"canonical_url":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr/ruby-bridges-how-a-six-year-old-girl-stepped-into-the-history-books/2O6DKJUCSVCTPKKPZRCGVO3VDU/","_id":"2O6DKJUCSVCTPKKPZRCGVO3VDU"},{"content_elements":[{"_id":"6TYDATEEYNH67N7PJBAMDPARIU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643233077467},"type":"text","content":"The story of Crispus Attucks shows how, from the earliest days of the American independence movement, people of color like Attucks, James Lafayette and Peter Salem played roles in the founding of the United States."},{"_id":"XYQPLG2XCVEZBEZ2SJBZW7GJDU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643298454767},"type":"text","content":"In the case of Attucks, however, questions remain on the nature of his exact role. Historians remain divided on whether he was a hero and a martyr, or a rabble-rouser whose actions led to the Boston Massacre."},{"_id":"LBATDNXXANGHVOZD5CPFIWVYMA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643303430811},"type":"text","content":"Attucks remains best known as the likely first person to have been killed in the American Revolution. He was shot and killed in March 1770 during the Boston Massacre, according to the Journal of the American Revolution."},{"_id":"EGGHUXG6XJDXRKHSLTD5MNDQYA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643219350279},"type":"text","content":"Attucks was born into slavery, likely in 1723 in the town of Framingham, Massachusetts, according to town histories. Records indicate his father was African and his mother was an indigenous American, likely a Wampanoag, according to the Crispus Attucks online museum maintained by the University of Massachusetts."},{"_id":"GEH4ODS3M5BWLKRE2EQASHTQEA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643219350281},"type":"text","content":"Sometime during his 20s, Attucks escaped slavery and fled to an area somewhere on the Atlantic coast, where he became a sailor and a whaler."},{"_id":"4SB2UP2MVRHZ7KSFZW2AI2QFZA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643219350282},"type":"text","content":"Much of Attucks’ background remains unknown and his legacy wavers on all matter of questions."},{"_id":"ZQC67JSKJNFS5CV4S25MEOCRWY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643219350283},"type":"text","content":"During his lifetime, Attucks was variously referred to as either a runaway slave or a free man, with his exact position during the Boston Massacre unknown to his peers."},{"owner":{"sponsored":false,"id":"ajc"},"address":{},"caption":"A memorial portrait of Crispus Attucks, from 1897. 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Some historians believe the massacre started as a result of disputes between local and British seamen over jobs in the docks or on ships."},{"_id":"JQUH75CXYVDFXJKN27YPAYAIYY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643298454774},"type":"text","content":"It was a tense atmosphere at the time between British soldiers and American colonists in Boston, with England attempting to retain control of the colonies, while Americans struggled to gain more autonomy."},{"_id":"VRRCAVJALVHC5KJOCIXCGZ26AI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643298454775},"type":"text","content":"Lawyer John Adams represented the British soldiers accused of shooting Attucks. During the soldiers’ murder trial, Adams made him a scapegoat. Adams, who became the second American president, successfully defended the British soldiers and, during the court proceedings, Adams described Attucks’ supposed “mad behavior” as a cause of the shooting."},{"_id":"5FJ7FHS7TNBTDBAIG3WIJMYQOY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643219350286},"type":"text","content":"Later appraisals of Attucks’ role were much more generous toward his contributions to American independence. Abolitionists established Crispus Attucks Day to commemorate him, now officially recognized by the city of Boston. An 18th century lithograph owned by a Boston historical group shows Attucks as the victim of a brutal beating, a far cry from the lead scoundrel responsible for a massacre."},{"_id":"6K3QJ7XPQJFX5EZT5QS3BUDJII","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643303430820},"type":"text","content":"On the whole, history has been kind to Attucks. He has at least two high schools named for him, in Indianapolis and Hopkinsville, Kentucky. Several elementary and middle schools bear his name, as do public parks and city streets. A theatre in Norfolk, Virginia, that was financed, designed and built by Black entrepreneurs in 1919, is also named for Attucks."},{"_id":"H2KNK3FY5NE7RNOU2AOONGDZSU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643303430821},"type":"text","content":"Attucks is routinely mentioned in articles and history books as one of several Black people who played important roles in the American Revolution, such as James Lafayette, who served as a spy for American leaders, and Peter Salem, who served as a soldier during the war."},{"owner":{"sponsored":false,"id":"ajc"},"address":{},"syndication":{},"caption":"An engraving from 1770 of the Boston Massacre, where British troops fired upon citizens. Crispus Attucks was among those killed. The full caption reads: "The massacre perpetrated in King Street Boston on March 5th 1770, in which Messrs Saml. Gray, Saml. Maverick, James Caldwell, Crispus Attucks, Patrick Carr were killed, six other wounded, two of them mortally." 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Martin Luther King Jr. named Attucks as a man of moral courage in the introduction to his 1964 book “Why We Can’t Wait.” Stevie Wonder names Attucks in his song “Black Man.” Artist William H. Johnson in 1945 painted a scene of the Boston Massacre that shows Attucks lying on the ground after the attack."},{"_id":"TJDPM3LSMVBAJJWJGW3CVRBGDU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643219350289},"type":"text","content":"Then there is the Boston Massacre Monument, also known as the Crispus Attucks Monument. Located in the Boston Common public park, the 35-foot-tall sculpture lists the names of Attucks and four other men who were killed by British soldiers during the massacre."},{"_id":"N2WWMBSO2ZARNIDC5PWDONMDUE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643219350290},"type":"text","content":"But, like other remembrances of Attucks’ life, not everyone agreed on his exact role. When the Boston monument was dedicated in 1889, two groups, the Massachusetts Historical Society and the New England Historic Genealogical Society, publicly stated their opposition, saying Attucks was a villain."},{"_id":"THXEWFS5AFE4HOCYT3JQZWMQYE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643219350291},"type":"text","content":"Hero or villain, Attucks name remains today at the top of the Boston Massacre Monument to commemorate his role as the first person to die in the American Revolution."},{"_id":"3QDFLEZJRREYPOKGCAP4SGKHMY","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"EPL6S5HZHBEA7HOJBSJBUK42I4"},"type":"divider"},{"_id":"YTRNTZORD5FNPOIA2E373ZD6KE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643219350277},"type":"text","content":"BLACK HISTORY MONTH"},{"_id":"CMHRKYUBGJHOHCFNV5PTWBBNEI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643655959893},"type":"text","content":"This year, the AJC’s Black History Month series will focus on the role of health and wellness in the Black community. In addition to the traditional stories that we do on African American pioneers, these pieces will run in our Living and A sections every day this month. You can also go to ajc.com/black-history-month for more subscriber exclusives on the African American people, places and organizations that have changed the world."}],"display_date":"2022-02-05T11:00:00Z","headlines":{"basic":"Attucks’ role in early America remains a question, but most celebrate him as hero"},"first_publish_date":"2022-02-05T11:00:03.894Z","taxonomy":{"sections":[{"path":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","parent":{"default":"/news"},"_website":"ajc","parent_id":"/news","name":"Black History Month","description":"Learn about black history and the story of the civil rights movement in Atlanta, the birthplace of Martin Luther King Jr. From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.","_id":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","additional_properties":{"original":{"parent":{"AmpNav":"/news","default":"/news","BottomNav":null,"SectionMap":"https://www.ajc.com/","ComposerNav":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"site":{"section_comments_enabled":"Yes","site_description":"Learn about black history and the story of the civil rights movement in Atlanta, the birthplace of Martin Luther King Jr. From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.","site_title":"Black History Month"},"navigation":{"nav_title":"Black History Month"},"inactive":false,"node_type":"section","_website":"ajc","name":"Black History Month","_id":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","ancestors":{"AmpNav":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"default":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"BottomNav":[],"SectionMap":["https://www.ajc.com/"]},"order":{"AmpNav":2016,"default":2016,"SectionMap":1133,"ComposerNav":1093}}},"_website_section_id":"ajc./news/martin-luther-king-jr","type":"section","version":"0.6.0"},{"path":"/life","parent":{"default":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"_website":"ajc","parent_id":"https://www.ajc.com/","name":"Life","description":"Atlanta living and lifestyle news, Atlanta travel, health, faith, celebrities and pop culture news and features from the AJC. 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Claudette Colvin"},{"_id":"RR66Y6XB3ZGABFEEDH5DNCMASE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613139213989},"type":"text","content":"Everyone knows the story of Rosa Parks and her brave stand — or, sit — on that Alabama bus. But Parks wasn’t the first to do so."},{"_id":"TBUOPBVPEBGCTKVVFCTENAX4RU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613139213990},"type":"text","content":"On March 2, 1955, a 15-year-old Claudette Colvin was riding home from school when the city bus driver told her to give up her seat to a white passenger. She refused, saying: “It’s my constitutional right to sit here as much as that lady. I paid my fare, it’s my constitutional right.” Colvin felt compelled to stand her ground. “I felt like Sojourner Truth was pushing down on one shoulder and Harriet Tubman was pushing down on the other — saying, ‘Sit down girl!’ I was glued to my seat,” she later told Newsweek."},{"_id":"N7LP554DAVAZRNY6DZMR2SBJUA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613139213991},"type":"text","content":"According to biography.com, the NAACP briefly considered using Colvin’s case to challenge the segregation laws, but it decided against it because of her age."},{"level":2,"_id":"YPFIJF66CJHSJPHHLHOYONGN2A","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857739},"type":"header","content":"2. Maya Angelou"},{"_id":"DMVYTNBRZVHNLMJOMKR3RP32SM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857740},"type":"text","content":"Even if you haven’t read any of Maya Angelou’s poems or other writings, you’ve heard of her. But did you know that In 1944, she became the first female Black cable car conductor in San Francisco?"},{"_id":"OLJBBKJUOFD4TME5R5RFLDW4DI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857741},"type":"text","content":"After weeks of trying to get an interview for the job, Angelou wrote:"},{"_id":"HGKKUX2UGJCWPOTJJQ5P7WIUD4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857742},"type":"text","content":"“(O)ne day, which was tiresomely like all the others before it, I sat in the Railway office, ostensibly waiting to be interviewed."},{"_id":"KXAKZRDPNRGJHAH2L3PN4WREAU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857743},"type":"text","content":"“The receptionist called me to her desk and shuffled a bundle of papers to me. They were job application forms. She said they had to be filled in triplicate. I had little time to wonder if I had won or not, for the standard questions reminded me of the necessity for dexterous lying. How old was I? List my previous jobs, starting from the last held and go backward to the first. How much money did I earn, and why did I leave the position? Give two references (not relatives)."},{"_id":"PWP3LID25ZF7BMQ3PKD5NF2H7U","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857744},"type":"text","content":"“Sitting at a side table my mind and I wove a cat’s ladder of near truths and total lies. I kept my face blank (an old art) and wrote quickly the fable of Marguerite Johnson, aged nineteen, former companion and driver for Mrs. Annie Henderson (a White lady) in Stamps, Arkansas."},{"_id":"TDOCCFTILFEXHI7TID2TI4JDUY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857745},"type":"text","content":"“I was given blood tests, aptitude tests, physical coordination tests, and Rorschachs, then on a blissful day I was hired as the first Negro on the San Francisco streetcars.”"},{"_id":"CTIX5OTSMNA75O3U4IIAGGD4KI","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"4WNOLI2GHJGNJEO3CBIWQM6LNQ"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"AJC staff photos: Maya Angelou through the years","url":"https://www.ajc.com/news/ajc-staff-photos-maya-angelou-through-the-years/TLM3qmBEoii10sjFj5CDdI/"},{"level":2,"_id":"XSZYXZCM2FGBPDD44S44AAWDTE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857747},"type":"header","content":"3. Rebecca Lee Crumpler"},{"_id":"IMKYYG5DCNDJDD4RRRNMB4WTZ4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857748},"type":"text","content":"After working eight years as a nurse, Rebecca Lee Crumpler began medical school at the New England Female Medical College in 1860. This school was the first in the United States to train female doctors, Harvard wrote. She graduated in 1864 as the first Black woman to receive an M.D. in the U.S. At the time, only 300 of the 54,543 physicians in the U.S. were women, and none of them were Black."},{"_id":"UEKEKFTXKVEDPHSDAZOMOJZFZA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857749},"type":"text","content":"After opening a medical clinic in Boston, she treated women and children who lived in poverty, often asking no payment for her services."},{"_id":"3AOIQ47RYZF3RFPZFDO3R6HRFA","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"R5EPL4BVSJC3PH354CYKCPHAXY"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"A medical pioneer and a modern challenge","url":"https://www.ajc.com/news/opinion/medical-pioneer-and-modern-challenge/90usAZ3xc8i64LJBuij0FI/"},{"level":2,"_id":"G3PFTIT2E5H7HCSRI6YX33GSTM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857751},"type":"header","content":"4. Blacks fought for the Union"},{"_id":"QEUN63HV2NFCBJRDUVJY4QL4FQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857752},"type":"text","content":"By the end of the Civil War, about 179,000 Black men served as soldiers in the U.S. Army — making up 10% of total troops. An additional 19,000 served in the Navy, according to the National Archives. Nearly 40,000 Black soldiers died over the course of the war — 30,000 of infection or disease. Black soldiers served in artillery and infantry, and performed all noncombat support functions that sustain an army. Black carpenters, chaplains, cooks, guards, laborers, nurses, scouts, spies, steamboat pilots, surgeons and teamsters also contributed to the war cause. There were nearly 80 Black commissioned officers."},{"level":2,"_id":"VDW65PA4NNCVXCSFNSW52CQZEQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857753},"type":"header","content":"5. Black women fighting for the Union"},{"_id":"3GL6UHNIVBAXFG6FXQ2KR7EY54","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857754},"type":"text","content":"Black men fighting in the Civil War have aften been depicted in movies, but little has been said about the Black women. These women, who couldn’t formally join the Army, served as nurses, spies and scouts, according to the National Archives. The most famous was Harriet Tubman, who scouted for the 2nd South Carolina Volunteers."},{"level":2,"_id":"WUQQVPV3YFAM5K5O5ZDUAKZJN4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857755},"type":"header","content":"6. Annie Turnbo Malone"},{"_id":"ICA72Q7CDNGLBBXZHSI5FIWU3I","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857756},"type":"text","content":"Annie Turnbo Malone was one of the country’s first Black millionaires. She started Poro Co., which made hair and beauty products for the Black community. She hired the young Sarah Breedlove as one of her door-to-door sales agents. You probably know Breedlove better as Madam C.J. Walker, who invented a line of African American hair products, according to biography.com, after suffering from a scalp ailment that resulted in her own hair loss."},{"level":2,"_id":"UNGRZKOU7JF7NNWGVARGFJMADQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857757},"type":"header","content":"7. Black inventors"},{"_id":"7O5LOGRMOBDFHDVCWTSBBVZPVI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857758},"type":"text","content":"Everyone may know about George Washington Carver, but there are so many more Black inventors who have contributed much to our way of life. Here are just four:"},{"_id":"VVB57UIRYRDLNAXODG3KJSRF2Y","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857759},"type":"text","content":"Lewis Howard Latimer: Invented and patented the carbon filament, so lightbulbs would last longer than those with a paper filament designed by Thomas Edison."},{"_id":"EXJAWMWIAFHGLNSJW7UHTSP23A","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857760},"type":"text","content":"Sarah Boone: An African American dressmaker, she made her name by inventing the modern-day ironing board. With its approval in 1892, she became one of the first Black women to be awarded a patent."},{"_id":"IML73HJC2FHBLOLO3XCSCH4QXE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857761},"type":"text","content":"Garrett Morgan: Love them or curse them, you can thank 46-year-old inventor and newspaperman Garrett Morgan for the three-position traffic signal. “Though Morgan’s was not the first traffic signal (that one had been installed in London in 1868), it was an important innovation nonetheless: By having a third position besides just ‘Stop’ and ‘Go,’ it regulated crossing vehicles more safely than earlier signals had,” history.com wrote."},{"_id":"ED3U22IULBEFNOTBPZAZOHG4RU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857762},"type":"text","content":"Marie Van Brittan Brown: If you sleep better at night and when you’re away from home because you have a security system, you should know it was invented by a Black woman. “Marie Van Brittan Brown felt uneasy in her neighborhood and the police were unreliable. So, she took matters in her own hands and patented the modern home security system,” timeline.com wrote. “Over 50 years later, the technology is installed in millions of homes and offices worldwide.”"},{"_id":"XQVEEKQH2ZH3XMGM22KT2HPSHA","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"YGZLTHEWAVHENDC4EM2NOFLIB4"},"type":"divider"},{"_id":"Y3NTXDIXABHILGMKU4UZXGNFNY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[]},"type":"text","content":"BLACK HISTORY MONTH"},{"_id":"JJAOPTVNJ5GQ5KDPTEC57X4UFY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[]},"type":"text","content":"This year, the AJC’s Black History Month series will focus on the role of health and wellness in the Black community. In addition to the traditional stories that we do on African American pioneers, these pieces will run in our Living and A sections every day this month. You can also go to ajc.com/black-history-month for more subscriber exclusives on the African American people, places and organizations that have changed the world."},{"_id":"4FHORQFPIJAKXLG4VVZHJPCNGM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613146857764},"type":"text","content":"
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Home to multiple celebrated historically black colleges, this city has played a vital role in the careers of many big names like activist Stacey Abrams, writer and activist James Weldon Johnson, Southern Poverty Law Center co-founder Julian Bond, author Alice Walker, filmmaker Spike Lee and many other pioneers in Black history. Furthermore, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., perhaps the most recognizable figure in the civil rights movement, also found his start in the city."},{"_id":"JVANAZEAWFDCDFTH7PGA72WTPY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047629},"type":"text","content":"So, if you’re looking for ways to immerse yourself in Black history, you don’t have to search very far."},{"_id":"PT3FFIJADJCL3E6XLUVIGS55VM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047630},"type":"text","content":"“There are just so many places and pockets here in Atlanta to celebrate Black history. You have the Apex museum — not to mention the history of Auburn Avenue and the King Center,” says Nia Damali, owner of the Medu Bookstore in Greenbriar Mall, which will reopen after a brief renovation right in time for Black History Month."},{"_id":"SVDCCCEX3JCPTBPUV5NYEFOSF4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047631},"type":"text","content":"With so much rich cultural history weaved throughout the city, there are countless iconic places and local faces to honor this month, but here are seven great venues to start your journey."},{"owner":{"id":"ajc"},"workflow":{"status_code":4},"caption":"Medu Bookstore at Greenbriar Mall dedicates a section of the store to Kwanzaa items.","source":{"system":"Methode","source_type":"other","source_id":"4fa5e154-1c5f-4fc1-b49f-3196432969a1","additional_properties":{"editor":"photo center"}},"type":"image","distributor":{"mode":"reference","reference_id":"8aec2b8c-455c-4816-903d-79fc8fdf8019"},"version":"0.10.3","url":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/KIQIP3TMH6P2YFWOO2T3FME4TU.jpg","licensable":false,"display_date":"2015-11-10T00:12:00Z","credits":{"by":[{"name":"Medu Bookstore","type":"author","byline":"Medu Bookstore","slug":"medu-bookstore"}]},"subtitle":"Medu Bookstore","width":362,"first_publish_date":"2015-11-10T00:12:00Z","_id":"KIQIP3TMH6P2YFWOO2T3FME4TU","additional_properties":{"fullSizeResizeUrl":"/resizer/fSl2JtkX5RX0AGE8Z4z_onKX9t0=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/KIQIP3TMH6P2YFWOO2T3FME4TU.jpg","comments":[],"proxyUrl":"/resizer/fSl2JtkX5RX0AGE8Z4z_onKX9t0=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/KIQIP3TMH6P2YFWOO2T3FME4TU.jpg","takenOn":"2015-11-10T00:12:00Z","originalUrl":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/KIQIP3TMH6P2YFWOO2T3FME4TU.jpg","published":true,"resizeUrl":"/resizer/fSl2JtkX5RX0AGE8Z4z_onKX9t0=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/KIQIP3TMH6P2YFWOO2T3FME4TU.jpg","thumbnailResizeUrl":"/resizer/QEjU8W8zUmhrkpOhzK0M6STTlmA=/300x0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/KIQIP3TMH6P2YFWOO2T3FME4TU.jpg","version":0,"originalName":"https://www.ajc.com//rw/Pub/p6/AJC/2015/11/10/Images/photos.medleyphoto.8371486.jpg","mime_type":"image/jpeg","restricted":false,"galleries":[],"_id":"F65Q67BCMVFCVBPSTFEYTLLECQ"},"created_date":"2020-06-22T02:17:28Z","last_updated_date":"2020-06-22T02:17:28Z","publish_date":"2015-11-10T15:24:38Z","height":203},{"level":2,"_id":"R63D4LMTBBHBTJRGNEDMUDYYTM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047632},"type":"header","content":"Black-owned bookstores"},{"_id":"XWBHRCUQIBA2ZGERFSLRARCFEY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047633},"type":"text","content":"“I couldn’t think of a greater place to celebrate Black history than within a place of knowledge,” Damali says about her bookstore. In business since 1989 and one of a few remaining Black-owned bookstores in the city, Damali frequently hosts author signings and book readings, including an upcoming event for Rev. Al Sharpton’s latest book this February."},{"_id":"3MMUG7ADRJERHISRP5M2QHSDVA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047634},"type":"text","content":"With the renewed spotlight on the Black Lives Matter movement, Damali has welcomed both a surge in support for Black-owned bookstores and a growing interest in reading materials on race and culture."},{"_id":"HMXHZPPSHJHRBDBLIMJ33UDMUI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047635},"type":"text","content":"“Everybody’s trying to understand race relations and understand how to better treat one another and to grow through all of this racism,” she says."},{"_id":"OXUIW7NJJNB65OOXXFFQUP6LJ4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047636},"type":"text","content":"When asked for a few recommended readings to celebrate this month, the author and bookshop owner offers:"},{"_id":"B62Q6S4VIZFXHEDKJX6FM4TQOQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047637},"type":"text","content":"“‘The Mis-Education of the Negro,’ by Carter G. Woodson. I will suggest books like ‘Destruction of Black Civilization” [by Chancellor Williams],” she advises. “I would mention books like ‘Stamped,’ dealing with race relations. And if I have another choice, I would say something like the book called ‘PowerNomics’ in terms of economic empowerment.”"},{"_id":"KQI2WOFP3ZDXJJJFAOXEHXYBOQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047638},"type":"text","content":"Medu Bookstore, Greenbriar Mall, 2841 Greenbriar Pkwy. SW, Atlanta. 404-346-3263, medubookstore.com."},{"_id":"EFK4KAB3CRBJTPAAOLQFVYIAJI","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"OG64PG2Q7FGOXFXW7WFLOQE2E4"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"Black History month in Atlanta","url":"https://www.ajc.com/news/martin-luther-king-jr/"},{"owner":{"id":"ajc"},"workflow":{"status_code":4},"caption":"A storyteller entertains the children as a part of Kwanzaa activities at the APEX Museum. 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In their permanent exhibit, “Africa the Untold Story,” visitors can learn the history of ancient African civilization."},{"_id":"MOOPMFGDLZGM5IECGEDZELRINA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047641},"type":"text","content":"For those interested in local area history, the museum also exhibits the Black experience in Georgia — with everything from slavery documents and artifacts to a standing replica of a Black-owned pharmacy, which served as a staple of the Black community in 1920s Atlanta. Due to COVID, visitors are admitted during time slots, and advanced online purchase is recommended."},{"_id":"MR77CQQPFVECPCT5DSA7VHFEW4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047642},"type":"text","content":"Starting at $8. APEC Museum, 135 Auburn Ave. NE, Atlanta, 404-523-2739, apexmuseum.org."},{"owner":{"id":"ajc"},"workflow":{"status_code":4},"caption":"The Atlanta Life Insurance Company building.","source":{"system":"Methode","source_type":"other","source_id":"e128d812-a719-11e9-89cf-f7f3aea31779","additional_properties":{"editor":"photo center"}},"type":"image","distributor":{"mode":"reference","reference_id":"8aec2b8c-455c-4816-903d-79fc8fdf8019"},"version":"0.10.3","url":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/D4MDPHDX5BUIJASV5M2U725HUI.jpg","licensable":false,"display_date":"2019-07-15T16:09:03Z","credits":{},"subtitle":"5 of Atlanta’s most Instagrammable streets","width":2048,"first_publish_date":"2019-07-15T16:09:03Z","_id":"D4MDPHDX5BUIJASV5M2U725HUI","additional_properties":{"fullSizeResizeUrl":"/resizer/3aEXGhH7S-7nJJp-AdInU8zF55M=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/D4MDPHDX5BUIJASV5M2U725HUI.jpg","comments":[],"proxyUrl":"/resizer/3aEXGhH7S-7nJJp-AdInU8zF55M=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/D4MDPHDX5BUIJASV5M2U725HUI.jpg","takenOn":"2019-07-15T16:09:03Z","originalUrl":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/D4MDPHDX5BUIJASV5M2U725HUI.jpg","published":true,"resizeUrl":"/resizer/3aEXGhH7S-7nJJp-AdInU8zF55M=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/D4MDPHDX5BUIJASV5M2U725HUI.jpg","thumbnailResizeUrl":"/resizer/1M9IcetPUON_BY8E7cjCJwsTbRk=/300x0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/D4MDPHDX5BUIJASV5M2U725HUI.jpg","version":0,"originalName":"https://www.ajc.com//rw/Pub/p10/AJC/2019/07/15/Images/newsEngin.24362344_071910-GG-insta-streets_Windows-Speak-Exhibit_Auburn-Ave_Photo-C.jpg","mime_type":"image/jpeg","restricted":false,"galleries":[],"_id":"S33CRZ7SPRCIVNNSYHIDYSFWG4"},"created_date":"2020-06-27T17:50:58Z","last_updated_date":"2020-06-27T17:50:58Z","publish_date":"2019-07-15T16:09:03Z","height":1152},{"level":2,"_id":"JGGZBDLGFJFTJO6LXP67IHYQWQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047643},"type":"header","content":"Sweet Auburn District"},{"_id":"MFYRMXNBRRH6PIACBA5BIY7QGY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047644},"type":"text","content":"After the APEX, continue your journey through history with a literal stroll down Auburn Avenue. Listed as a National Historic Landmark, the Sweet Auburn District was a center for Black commerce and one of the wealthiest African American communities in the nation during the early 20th century."},{"_id":"OJZMPFVMPBB4JHZBOWEBS4P5JM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047645},"type":"text","content":"Among those earlier prominent businesses was the Atlanta Life Insurance Company. Today, visitors can make a quick stop to view the outside of the ALI building, which was founded in 1905 by sharecropper-turned-businessman, Alonzo Herndon, Atlanta’s first black millionaire. Known for its community activism and contributions to building Black wealth, the ALI was widely viewed as a cornerstone of the district."},{"_id":"ZJCLGV7NSBBBFNIRJCWB6PIEW4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047646},"type":"text","content":"Before leaving Auburn, consider paying your respects to a few civil rights legends. The mural of the late U.S. Rep. John Lewis (at the corner of Jesse Hill Jr. Drive and Auburn Avenue) was already a popular photo stop prior to his passing last summer; it’s now sure to remain a memorial attraction. Just a block down, at Bell Street and Auburn, you can also visit the mural of the late Evelyn Lowery, a champion of equal rights and the wife of the late civil rights icon Rev. Joseph P. Lowery, who passed away in March 2020."},{"_id":"B4VNZUWVJREWZFYFUI5K2OR6OA","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"ALN2IPTW5VEOZPMWOGCEWD7UEI"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"Black History Month bucket list: 6 must-see Atlanta landmarks","url":"https://www.ajc.com/events/atlanta-attractions-black-history-civil-rights/2qqZAFfSN16Rvi4kRutE7M/"},{"owner":{"id":"ajc"},"workflow":{"status_code":4},"caption":"The Eternal Flame burns near the King tomb at the Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site.","source":{"system":"Methode","source_type":"other","source_id":"bce21a14-9448-4e93-8f00-fcea0b652281","additional_properties":{"editor":"photo center"}},"type":"image","distributor":{"mode":"reference","reference_id":"8aec2b8c-455c-4816-903d-79fc8fdf8019"},"version":"0.10.3","url":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/6DBUDYMGYBYIKC7N5GGLRZZ3S4.jpg","licensable":false,"display_date":"2016-05-27T12:58:57Z","credits":{"by":[{"name":"AJC file","type":"author","byline":"AJC file","slug":"ajc-file"}]},"subtitle":"Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site","width":4792,"first_publish_date":"2016-05-27T12:58:57Z","_id":"6DBUDYMGYBYIKC7N5GGLRZZ3S4","additional_properties":{"fullSizeResizeUrl":"/resizer/yDTJtVoroat_5Wi9IWdEy1lB1R0=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/6DBUDYMGYBYIKC7N5GGLRZZ3S4.jpg","comments":[],"proxyUrl":"/resizer/yDTJtVoroat_5Wi9IWdEy1lB1R0=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/6DBUDYMGYBYIKC7N5GGLRZZ3S4.jpg","takenOn":"2016-05-27T12:58:57Z","originalUrl":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/6DBUDYMGYBYIKC7N5GGLRZZ3S4.jpg","published":true,"resizeUrl":"/resizer/yDTJtVoroat_5Wi9IWdEy1lB1R0=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/6DBUDYMGYBYIKC7N5GGLRZZ3S4.jpg","thumbnailResizeUrl":"/resizer/ddg2O9ghHQUXQPFYT0tJ2zRxQsc=/300x0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/6DBUDYMGYBYIKC7N5GGLRZZ3S4.jpg","version":0,"originalName":"https://www.ajc.com//rw/Pub/p7/AJC/2016/05/27/Images/photos.medleyphoto.9926095.JPG","mime_type":"image/jpeg","restricted":false,"galleries":[{"headlines":{"basic":"Photos: Tour Georgia's national parklands"},"_id":"4RYT6QNAX24NXRM3ZDVY3VPOVA"}],"_id":"HEHRF6NAFVGA7PD5VWVOYFZ5IU"},"created_date":"2020-06-23T07:41:55Z","last_updated_date":"2020-06-23T07:41:55Z","publish_date":"2016-05-27T13:28:27Z","height":3192},{"level":2,"_id":"3GGGFBMSBNEINDEUIMQGCGM4EA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047647},"type":"header","content":"King Center, King Birth Home and Ebenezer Baptist Church"},{"_id":"OXHI3BTCVNFWBOQKMJGOSQQM3U","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047648},"type":"text","content":"Continuing down Auburn Avenue, you’ll find the King Center. Outside the Center, you can view the marble crypts of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. and his wife and fellow freedom fighting legend Coretta Scott King. Then, visit the Center for a deeper look into the legacy of King and his lifelong quest for civil rights."},{"_id":"2XNHHTKU4JB3BNI3W6EMCTF7V4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047649},"type":"text","content":"Next, view the birth home of King, which is also on Auburn Avenue. Lastly, visit the historic Ebenezer Baptist Church, where King and his father preached. The church now has new historical significance as its latest senior pastor, Rev. Raphael Warnock, recently became the first Black senator from the state of Georgia."},{"_id":"23YSIGGCJRBAXEHROGWWWDWPLY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047651},"type":"text","content":"The King Center, 449 Auburn Ave. NE Atlanta, 404-526-8968, thekingcenter.org; King’s Birth Home, 501 Auburn Ave. NE, Atlanta, 404-331-6922; Ebenezer Baptist Church (Heritage Sanctuary), 407 Auburn Ave. NE, Atlanta. 404-331-6922."},{"_id":"OM6FVZH5FNBFDNWWLIURXKJ24A","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"2AMDPJKFGFBPHLV7PZSSKHHOME"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"Black-owned restaurants in Atlanta","url":"https://www.ajc.com/blog/atlanta-restaurants/list-more-than-100-black-owned-restaurants-food-businesses-metro-atlanta/yPTF5EDiMV9QSqDaDJRSQJ/"},{"owner":{"id":"ajc"},"workflow":{"status_code":4},"caption":"The Center for Civil and Human Rights looks at the intersection of the local story of the civil rights movement and the ongoing national story of the evolution of human rights. 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There are even a few interesting moments of local Black history depicted in the museum, including features on local leaders and how Atlanta-based businesses contributed to civil rights efforts in the city."},{"_id":"TY52QA337VFRDLZ7WJZUMUKNPU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047655},"type":"text","content":"National Center for Civil and Human Rights, 100 Ivan Allan Jr. Blvd., Atlanta. civilandhumanrights.org."},{"owner":{"id":"ajc"},"workflow":{"status_code":4},"caption":"W.E.B. Du Bois (center, wearing white hat) co-founded the Niagara Movement, just one example of his civil rights activism while working as a professor at Atlanta University. 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Du Bois quite an orator (1890)","width":2000,"first_publish_date":"2019-04-18T14:59:45Z","_id":"YS3QQEGOL6TULIERJ7IVPXNMFU","additional_properties":{"fullSizeResizeUrl":"/resizer/vCy6jjtivzh-9torGFHl55Znsfw=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/YS3QQEGOL6TULIERJ7IVPXNMFU.jpg","comments":[],"keywords":["atlanta-news-metro.ajc","intown atlanta","Corson","dejanews","black history","higher education","HBCU","school-news.ajc","ajcsepia"],"proxyUrl":"/resizer/vCy6jjtivzh-9torGFHl55Znsfw=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/YS3QQEGOL6TULIERJ7IVPXNMFU.jpg","takenOn":"2019-04-18T14:59:45Z","originalUrl":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/YS3QQEGOL6TULIERJ7IVPXNMFU.jpg","published":true,"resizeUrl":"/resizer/vCy6jjtivzh-9torGFHl55Znsfw=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/YS3QQEGOL6TULIERJ7IVPXNMFU.jpg","thumbnailResizeUrl":"/resizer/l6INmE0-rP7XI9-zvShCNlmt7bA=/300x0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/YS3QQEGOL6TULIERJ7IVPXNMFU.jpg","version":1,"originalName":"https://www.ajc.com//rw/Pub/p10/AJC/2019/04/18/Images/Niagara%20Movement%20group.jpg","mime_type":"image/jpeg","restricted":false,"galleries":[],"_id":"VXEKKLDWY5A4BHZ7M5PBRFKVCE"},"created_date":"2020-06-27T14:41:20Z","last_updated_date":"2020-07-08T17:06:00Z","publish_date":"2019-04-18T14:59:45Z","height":1394},{"level":2,"_id":"RTBKM62BWZEW5CHHYDRUKQSQFI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1611581822760},"type":"header","content":"Atlanta History Center"},{"_id":"2W56PY3R75FFFE4XEOR4FSMXKI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1611581822761},"type":"text","content":"During Black History Month, the Atlanta History Center is hosting virtual talks with acclaimed authors like Imani Perry, author of “South to America.”"},{"_id":"WW7L3SWPMVHBPLUKCUTKUMXSI4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1611581822762},"type":"text","content":"On site through March 23, guests of the Atlanta History Center can see the “American Democracy: A Great Leap of Faith” exhibit, which explores our future and ability to move forward as a united country. As an online-only exhibit, visitors can tour “Black Citizenship in the Age of Jim Crow,” which “explores the African American struggle for full citizenship and racial equality that unfolded in the 50 years following the Civil War.”"},{"_id":"UMN5VNKQSJCHRIZQE47LUGRAN4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1611581822763},"type":"text","content":"Tickets start at $9.80. Atlanta History Center, 130 West Paces Ferry Road NW., Atlanta. 404-814-4000, atlantahistorycenter.com."},{"owner":{"id":"ajc"},"workflow":{"status_code":4},"caption":"This film image released by Warner Bros. 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Fortunately, you don’t have to leave your house to celebrate Atlanta Black history. Thanks to streaming platforms, the stories of some of the city’s legendary trailblazers are available to watch from the comfort of your couch."},{"_id":"4SQIY3VSJZG45BI7ZONAW3ZGUA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047658},"type":"text","content":"Check out the documentary “Maynard” to learn about the life and work of Atlanta’s first black mayor, Maynard Holbrook Jackson. Also, watch “John Lewis: Good Trouble,” another insightful documentary that explores the late Georgia representative’s long career as a social activist."},{"_id":"NIV3S3NGCFH4NFNV3RN73PFYIE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1610950047659},"type":"text","content":"For a couple of Black history biopics, check out “42,” which was partially filmed in Atlanta and stars the late actor Chadwick Boseman as baseball icon and Georgia native Jackie Robinson. Also, consider watching (or re-watching) “Selma,” which chronicles the events leading up to King’s historic march to Selma, Alabama, that sparked the passing of the Voting Rights Act."},{"_id":"NS6IEOMUAJDT5K4M4NUHUXUQ6U","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"5VVHQQWMF5GQLHPS7B6ASPMFAM"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"Browse the AJC calendar for more Black History Month events","url":"https://events.ajc.com/events?neighborhoods=&categories=&search=black%20history&range=this-week"}],"display_date":"2022-02-04T16:56:12.375Z","headlines":{"basic":"How to mark Black History Month in Atlanta"},"first_publish_date":"2021-01-25T15:47:37.566Z","taxonomy":{"sections":[{"path":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","parent":{"default":"/news"},"_website":"ajc","parent_id":"/news","name":"Black History Month","description":"Learn about black history and the story of the civil rights movement in Atlanta, the birthplace of Martin Luther King Jr. From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.","_id":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","additional_properties":{"original":{"parent":{"AmpNav":"/news","default":"/news","BottomNav":null,"SectionMap":"https://www.ajc.com/","ComposerNav":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"site":{"section_comments_enabled":"Yes","site_description":"Learn about black history and the story of the civil rights movement in Atlanta, the birthplace of Martin Luther King Jr. From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.","site_title":"Black History Month"},"navigation":{"nav_title":"Black History Month"},"inactive":false,"node_type":"section","_website":"ajc","name":"Black History Month","_id":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","ancestors":{"AmpNav":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"default":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"BottomNav":[],"SectionMap":["https://www.ajc.com/"]},"order":{"AmpNav":2016,"default":2016,"SectionMap":1133,"ComposerNav":1093}}},"_website_section_id":"ajc./news/martin-luther-king-jr","type":"section","version":"0.6.0"},{"path":"/life","parent":{"default":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"_website":"ajc","parent_id":"https://www.ajc.com/","name":"Life","description":"Atlanta living and lifestyle news, Atlanta travel, health, faith, celebrities and pop culture news and features from the AJC. 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As part of this year’s Black History Month theme of “Black Health and Wellness,” we will occasionally resurface archival stories on the important topic."},{"_id":"3LUQPE2K2RA3DC2FAG2GGVXDGU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643636190488},"type":"text","content":"Every time Dr. Miranda Bailey screams for a “Grey’s Anatomy” medical intern to run and grab a bag of blood from the hospital’s blood bank, the patient lying on the hospital gurney has Charles Drew to thank."},{"_id":"VGMCRLN33RGFVO6ENHKB3KYQWI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643636190489},"type":"text","content":"In the late 1930s, Drew invented a way to process and preserve blood plasma for transfusions, which allowed it to be stored, shipped and used for longer periods of time. Before that, blood was only able to be used for about a week."},{"_id":"AEJ7T2JXGBAMFBGWC7ZO3C6POY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643636190490},"type":"text","content":"Drew’s invention took on greater importance during World War II when he oversaw blood banks for British troops in the “Blood for Britain” project. He later became medical director of the America Red Cross National Blood Donor Service in 1941 and collected thousands of blood donations for American troops, making it the first mass blood-collection program of its kind."},{"_id":"YP4X3NH7RZDERHDAID5LBEZLEA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643636190491},"type":"text","content":"But even in times of life and death, race remained a factor. At that time in the military, the blood of black and white soldiers was segregated. Drew’s arguments that race played no role in the quality of donated blood and who could use it fell on deaf ears. Ultimately, Drew resigned from the post when officials refused to change the policy."},{"_id":"ZNQIIHCR55AUFLHSKEKQMDNLMA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643636190492},"type":"text","content":"He returned to Washington, D.C., where it all began."},{"owner":{"id":"ajc"},"workflow":{"status_code":4},"caption":"Charles Drew discovered a method to store blood plasma for later use.  Drew established the National Blood Plasma Program for Great Britian and the United States, which saved countless lives during WWII.  Drew was awarded the Spingarn Medal in 1944.","source":{"system":"Methode","source_type":"other","source_id":"17be0e9e-5553-4bed-9af8-e564e599a734","additional_properties":{"editor":"photo center"}},"type":"image","distributor":{"mode":"reference","reference_id":"8aec2b8c-455c-4816-903d-79fc8fdf8019"},"version":"0.10.3","url":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/KDXTUIZS2D2ERYP6QZQJRUCY5U.jpg","licensable":false,"display_date":"2015-11-17T15:48:56Z","credits":{},"subtitle":"Charles Drew","width":1200,"first_publish_date":"2015-11-17T15:48:56Z","_id":"KDXTUIZS2D2ERYP6QZQJRUCY5U","additional_properties":{"fullSizeResizeUrl":"/resizer/KkvbvZ-J0GIzmVC5aJ7LtQWNBKE=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/KDXTUIZS2D2ERYP6QZQJRUCY5U.jpg","comments":[],"keywords":["taxon:education","story-tpt-id:8341","georgia","ajc-dsl","Higher education","HBCU"],"proxyUrl":"/resizer/KkvbvZ-J0GIzmVC5aJ7LtQWNBKE=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/KDXTUIZS2D2ERYP6QZQJRUCY5U.jpg","takenOn":"2015-11-17T15:48:56Z","originalUrl":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/KDXTUIZS2D2ERYP6QZQJRUCY5U.jpg","published":true,"resizeUrl":"/resizer/KkvbvZ-J0GIzmVC5aJ7LtQWNBKE=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/KDXTUIZS2D2ERYP6QZQJRUCY5U.jpg","thumbnailResizeUrl":"/resizer/U0a_KU_9GMzptHAec7Ve2Yxpfx0=/300x0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/KDXTUIZS2D2ERYP6QZQJRUCY5U.jpg","version":0,"originalName":"https://www.ajc.com//rw/Pub/p6/AJC/2015/11/17/Images/photos.medleyphoto.8399188.jpg","mime_type":"image/jpeg","restricted":false,"galleries":[{"headlines":{"basic":"AJC Sepia Greek Spotlight: The Men of Omega Psi Phi"},"_id":"PQYN7KWL3NMB4PPJW3WMTS3XVU"}],"_id":"FLNBZHFBGJA5VLHB7TS4ANC7VA"},"created_date":"2020-06-22T02:54:40Z","last_updated_date":"2020-06-22T02:54:40Z","publish_date":"2015-11-18T20:33:29Z","height":900},{"_id":"765SK6USLJG3VMQTYOO6K7UXNM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643636190494},"type":"text","content":"Long before Drew became the “father of blood banks,” he was “Charlie,” a standout athlete. Growing up in D.C. as the son of a carpet layer, Drew won several awards for swimming, football, basketball and other sports. He graduated from D.C.’s famed Dunbar High School in 1922 and went on to Amherst College on a sports scholarship. At the time, medicine wasn’t his career choice. His high school yearbook said he wanted to be an electrical engineer."},{"_id":"O5OGFRCPC5EGFOSO43PSGST7QA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643636190495},"type":"text","content":"A football injury that left him hospitalized and his sister’s death from tuberculosis led him to medicine, Drew would later say. After Amherst, he couldn’t afford his dream of attending medical school, so he worked as a biology teacher and coach for what is now Morgan State University, instead. Two years later, he applied to medical school and enrolled at McGill University in Montreal, earning M.D. and surgery degrees."},{"_id":"F633KSK46VF77KR7FI23ZEXJQ4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643636190496},"type":"text","content":"His father’s death brought him back to the United States and instructor positions at Howard University’s medical school and led to his research work in blood plasma and a doctorate from Columbia in 1940."},{"_id":"5JRSLBIIK5A6DN7IZLLKKESXBQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643636190497},"type":"text","content":"Ten years later, Drew would be dead."},{"_id":"BT2C7U5GLBDLVAQLJS7RGRB7D4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643636190498},"type":"text","content":"The horrible rumor that the man who helped so many others live died because doctors in a white hospital refused to give him a blood transfusion is false."},{"_id":"FSNS2XS6HNFAZNAA3EV4DYYNZU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643636190499},"type":"text","content":"But Drew, 45, did die a horrible death. While traveling with three other doctors to deliver a lecture, Drew supposedly fell asleep while driving, and the car ran off the road and flipped. He was thrown from the car, which also rolled over him. Drew was left with severe chest injuries and had lost so much blood by the time he was taken to the white hospital that he couldn’t be saved."},{"_id":"NUDENLWJGFGQFJXOCLJMVAWKMA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643636190500},"type":"text","content":"At his funeral, the Rev. Jerry Moore said Drew had “a life which crowds into a handful of years’ significance, so great, men will never be able to forget it.”"},{"_id":"7LCS2YVJBFDYDCBT4LMCVHHBAQ","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"LD4J4NMPDZGBNC22SUHBLBDAKY"},"type":"divider"},{"_id":"ZCW5QINWTRCEBDTPSGACLAQ55A","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643636190502},"type":"text","content":"BLACK HISTORY MONTH"},{"_id":"FTGUVSH7UJFFHOD775LSIAZFRA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643655069064},"type":"text","content":"This year, the AJC’s Black History Month series will focus on the role of health and wellness in the Black community. In addition to the traditional stories that we do on African American pioneers, these pieces will run in our Living and A sections every day this month. You can also go to ajc.com/black-history-month for more subscriber exclusives on the African American people, places and organizations that have changed the world."}],"display_date":"2022-02-04T11:00:00Z","headlines":{"basic":"Charles Drew: Doctor was a pioneer in storing blood"},"first_publish_date":"2022-02-04T11:00:01.717Z","taxonomy":{"sections":[{"path":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","parent":{"default":"/news"},"_website":"ajc","parent_id":"/news","name":"Black History Month","description":"Learn about black history and the story of the civil rights movement in Atlanta, the birthplace of Martin Luther King Jr. From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.","_id":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","additional_properties":{"original":{"parent":{"AmpNav":"/news","default":"/news","BottomNav":null,"SectionMap":"https://www.ajc.com/","ComposerNav":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"site":{"section_comments_enabled":"Yes","site_description":"Learn about black history and the story of the civil rights movement in Atlanta, the birthplace of Martin Luther King Jr. From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.","site_title":"Black History Month"},"navigation":{"nav_title":"Black History Month"},"inactive":false,"node_type":"section","_website":"ajc","name":"Black History Month","_id":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","ancestors":{"AmpNav":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"default":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"BottomNav":[],"SectionMap":["https://www.ajc.com/"]},"order":{"AmpNav":2016,"default":2016,"SectionMap":1133,"ComposerNav":1093}}},"_website_section_id":"ajc./news/martin-luther-king-jr","type":"section","version":"0.6.0"},{"path":"/news","parent":{"default":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"_website":"ajc","parent_id":"https://www.ajc.com/","name":"News","description":"Atlanta Georgia News main page: Breaking News, Atlanta Weather Forecast, Crime, Politics, GA Schools, Local Articles - 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In 1955, Jelks ran a weekly music show on a local radio station as a high school student."},{"_id":"RR7RM46RRBBLVLFMNXRO7AJH7U","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643055218723},"type":"text","content":"He graduated from Clark College, now called Clark Atlanta University, in 1961 and was operations manager at WIGO-AM, a R&B station, in Atlanta when he get the call from WSB-TV."},{"_id":"4P5BBNHWHNC3ZDDZOCR7CYH7FA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643138097009},"type":"text","content":"“He will become the first Negro TV newsman in Atlanta,” his hometown paper, now called The Tampa Bay Times, reported in its June 5, 1967 edition."},{"_id":"66YEHVQODFBBTN6DYSMEZ7UT3Y","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643138097010},"type":"text","content":"His first day of work was June 12."},{"owner":{"sponsored":false,"id":"ajc"},"address":{},"syndication":{},"caption":"Lo Jelks, seen here in an undated photo, became Atlanta's first Black television news reporter when he was hired at WSB-TV in 1967. 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President Lyndon Johnson that summer commissioned a report in the wake of riots in several large cities that concluded that the news media generally “failed to report adequately on the causes and consequences of civil disorders and on the under­lying problems of race relations.” The report recommendations included recruiting and training more Black reporters."},{"_id":"67OOEVZZBFGXPC6LYSXJRN3LWQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643138097012},"type":"text","content":"WSB managers told Jelks they hired him in part because the station needed a Black reporter. Station officials insisted he would not solely cover news impacting the Black community. Jelks got training on writing for television news."},{"_id":"6EJNVG7LWBGF3HYH6T4OWAMQWY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643138097013},"type":"text","content":"Jelks understood the significance of his position. He arrived at work before other reporters to read the newspapers to familiarize himself with the day’s top stories."},{"_id":"UU2SJ3WFOVBVDNHPH45IADJSVA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643138097014},"type":"text","content":"“You were watched a lot by the general public. There were people out there who didn’t wish us well at all and hoping we would make all kinds of mistakes,” he recalled."},{"_id":"RKPJR2DTDZCQTKV4HNZWL3N54Q","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643207500666},"type":"text","content":"Jelks traveled to other cities with mass transit systems for reports on Atlanta’s plans for what became MARTA. He interviewed Jimmy Carter during his 1970 gubernatorial run. For many, his most memorable assignment was interviewing Ku Klux Klan leaders before a rally at Stone Mountain."},{"_id":"NRPSOCSKCZCWFBOP5G2HWK4WFY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643138097016},"type":"text","content":"Other Atlanta news outlets began hiring Black reporters. The Atlanta Journal hired its first Black reporter, Harmon Perry, in 1968. Billye Suber Aaron, Jocelyn Dorsey, Emmanuel Hall, Felicia Jeter and Ron Sailor Sr. became familiar faces across Atlanta’s television screens in the subsequent years following Jelks."},{"_id":"4NZ27AFCYZGATAGKJPTKN5DT4Y","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643238705705},"type":"text","content":"Jelks worked at the station until 1976. He returned to his first love, radio, despite offers to become an anchor at the station and entreaties to report for NBC News."},{"_id":"NPQON33XEFBY7K533OWFKMHWMI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643149867332},"type":"text","content":"He started a radio station, WAUC-AM, developing projects, such as “Campus Spotlight,” which highlighted life and education on historically Black colleges and universities nationwide. Jelks also founded The AUC Digest, a newspaper serving the Atlanta University Center, which he still publishes."},{"_id":"BPQPSQMQJVBOTP45STUO2UEN3E","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643138097019},"type":"text","content":"Jelks’ son, Ken, playfully said his dad “is fighting retirement.”"},{"_id":"BWD5NTJXYVDTZEM6BPQCEOP4GE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643138097002},"type":"text","content":"Pearson and family members say Jelks suffers from a severe case of modesty about his impact."},{"_id":"3BWTXUT5OZG5FEJ67AJ23NIJCE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643138097003},"type":"text","content":"“He made history and he would rather let it become a footnote instead of being a headline,” she said."},{"owner":{"sponsored":false,"id":"ajc"},"address":{},"syndication":{},"caption":"Lo Jelks, Atlanta's first Black television news reporter, was hired at WSB-TV in 1967. 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The rigid, sticky sickle cells become stuck in small blood vessels, slowing or blocking blood flow and oxygen, and causing pain in the chest, joints and bones."},{"_id":"ZG3KWQOWC5D4RG6V4YXQZBJOPE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643298721545},"type":"text","content":"Unlike healthy red blood cells, which a body replaces every 120 days, sickle cells usually die in 10 or 20 days, leaving the body anemic and sometimes necessitating a blood transfusion."},{"_id":"IMOCYM6IFFEPRK4MTBCEBOR54Y","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"MGJNCUEHANFPDAEUO5WIMB2ZAU"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"Sickle cell advocate petitions for standardized care","url":"https://www.ajc.com/pulse/sickle-cell-advocate-petitions-for-standardized-care/BO3EIXR2XVHXLB35LCX3HO3JGY/"},{"owner":{"sponsored":false,"id":"ajc"},"address":{},"syndication":{},"caption":"Marketing consultant Alexis Lott has had more than 30 blood tranfusions during her three decades suffering from sickle cell.rPhoto courtesy of Alexis Lott","source":{"system":"photo center","name":"AJC","edit_url":"","source_type":"staff","additional_properties":{"editor":"photo center"}},"taxonomy":{"associated_tasks":["61e0737b22f8e72b1e8edf92"]},"type":"image","distributor":{"mode":"reference","reference_id":"8aec2b8c-455c-4816-903d-79fc8fdf8019"},"version":"0.10.3","url":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/DQCULIZ6LNDBPMZRWD7BDUGVLI.jpg","licensable":false,"credits":{"affiliation":[],"by":[{"name":"Photo courtesy of Alexis Lott","type":"author","byline":"Photo courtesy of Alexis Lott"}]},"subtitle":"sickle cell","width":800,"_id":"DQCULIZ6LNDBPMZRWD7BDUGVLI","additional_properties":{"fullSizeResizeUrl":"/resizer/aTQsphHwmvknfHQiIjHEentdqbI=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/DQCULIZ6LNDBPMZRWD7BDUGVLI.jpg","owner":"[email protected]","comments":[],"keywords":[""],"proxyUrl":"/resizer/aTQsphHwmvknfHQiIjHEentdqbI=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/DQCULIZ6LNDBPMZRWD7BDUGVLI.jpg","originalUrl":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/DQCULIZ6LNDBPMZRWD7BDUGVLI.jpg","published":true,"resizeUrl":"/resizer/aTQsphHwmvknfHQiIjHEentdqbI=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/DQCULIZ6LNDBPMZRWD7BDUGVLI.jpg","ingestionMethod":"manual","thumbnailResizeUrl":"/resizer/TFIlyE6aL57d_9xBqZkmA_iRG5s=/300x0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/DQCULIZ6LNDBPMZRWD7BDUGVLI.jpg","version":1,"originalName":"BHM sickle cell2.jpg","mime_type":"image/jpeg","restricted":false,"template_id":594,"galleries":[],"_id":"NCGJHYFYGNFD5NTFEXJMP2PIJU"},"created_date":"2022-01-23T21:05:11Z","last_updated_date":"2022-01-23T21:08:51Z","height":1073,"image_type":"photograph"},{"level":2,"_id":"5DBFGJHTZ5C4VG3N4XF5QLDTOY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643921060157},"type":"header","content":"Its disproportionate effect"},{"_id":"6HAEH4JKJBFRNAC2PVCOWESKV4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643150368442},"type":"text","content":"Sickle cell evolved from gene mutations in Black people centuries ago as a natural immunity against malaria. That’s why the trait is most common among those whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa and Spanish-speaking regions in the Western Hemisphere."},{"_id":"2P5UZPKKT5DFFMZ2NKR42PGQ7U","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643310434206},"type":"text","content":"The disease occurs in about 1 in every 365 Black births. Sickle cell is also found in about 1 in every 16,300 Hispanic-American births."},{"_id":"TA3QVIIWPZE6DBOR57FIGLQVKU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643298721546},"type":"text","content":"People who inherit one sickle cell gene and one normal gene have the sickle cell trait, which means they have no symptoms but can pass on the disease."},{"_id":"OE6D2TVDQNBMLBIVJDV3UOOA2Q","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643372811324},"type":"text","content":"About one in 13 Black infants are born with the trait, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. If both parents carry the trait, their children have a quarter chance of developing sickle cell and 50-50 chance of being born with the trait."},{"owner":{"sponsored":false,"id":"ajc"},"address":{},"syndication":{},"caption":"A patient at the Georgia Sickle Cell Foundation gives a sample of her blood to Phillip Oliver, a genetic counselor, so it can be tested in the lab for sickle cell anemia in this 1981 image. (Dwight Ross Jr. / AJC Archive at GSU Library AJCP302-032c)","source":{"system":"photo center","name":"AJC","edit_url":"","source_type":"staff","additional_properties":{"editor":"photo center"}},"taxonomy":{"associated_tasks":["61e0737b22f8e72b1e8edf92"]},"type":"image","distributor":{"mode":"reference","reference_id":"8aec2b8c-455c-4816-903d-79fc8fdf8019"},"version":"0.10.3","url":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/LPRIZZWG6NAVBBMQ2IPTIHEROU.jpg","licensable":false,"credits":{"affiliation":[],"by":[{"name":"Dwight Ross Jr.","type":"author","byline":"Dwight Ross Jr."}]},"subtitle":"BHM Sickle Cell","width":1856,"_id":"LPRIZZWG6NAVBBMQ2IPTIHEROU","additional_properties":{"fullSizeResizeUrl":"/resizer/hKRLryEXvJW0u1OF5_a_TIim2R4=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/LPRIZZWG6NAVBBMQ2IPTIHEROU.jpg","owner":"[email protected]","comments":[],"keywords":[""],"proxyUrl":"/resizer/hKRLryEXvJW0u1OF5_a_TIim2R4=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/LPRIZZWG6NAVBBMQ2IPTIHEROU.jpg","originalUrl":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/LPRIZZWG6NAVBBMQ2IPTIHEROU.jpg","published":true,"resizeUrl":"/resizer/hKRLryEXvJW0u1OF5_a_TIim2R4=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/LPRIZZWG6NAVBBMQ2IPTIHEROU.jpg","ingestionMethod":"manual","thumbnailResizeUrl":"/resizer/9k1DKk77XhtdEw4muctcKyspT-k=/300x0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/LPRIZZWG6NAVBBMQ2IPTIHEROU.jpg","version":1,"originalName":"Sickle Cell 1981 AJC.jpg","mime_type":"image/jpeg","restricted":false,"template_id":594,"galleries":[],"_id":"6AAPSZBSIJEATOUEQQXKCIJRAM"},"created_date":"2022-01-28T12:25:01Z","last_updated_date":"2022-01-28T12:25:43Z","height":1350,"image_type":"photograph"},{"_id":"I2QTRKSTP5GQJLWDG7JN2M3FGU","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"OX7BMNY2TZAIVME3CMZX4XXS2U"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"Georgia’s Critter Fixers: Black vets go from HBCUs to Nat Geo Wild","url":"https://www.ajc.com/life/georgias-critter-fixers-black-vets-go-from-hbcus-to-nat-geo-wild-disney/TMD5JICHCFGCDOLHKGPFIZU6ME/"},{"_id":"7Y4GX5BQWVGVHANJEFRWXWB464","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643313710470},"type":"text","content":"One form of treatment is blood transfusions — Lott has had more than 30 — but that poses its own problems."},{"_id":"D2NCLOWMXJCEPJSDKIVQBWOR44","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643298721551},"type":"text","content":"In large part because of the COVID pandemic, the American Red Cross is facing its worst blood crisis in more than a decade, forcing doctors to make tough decisions about treatment. Lott said Grady Memorial Hospital, which offers the only sickle cell clinic in the area, is overburdened."},{"_id":"AZ3YK7VIBBFWLEDPCSJC2FKYEA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643298721552},"type":"text","content":"“So if I got sick right now, I don’t know where I would go to get relief from the pain,” Lott said."},{"_id":"AZ3YK7VIBBFWLEDPCSJC2FKYEA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643298721552},"type":"text","content":"She has been working with the American Red Cross to try to get more diverse donors, because people of color represent fewer than 2% of blood donations."},{"level":2,"_id":"EG225R7ONZAGRBWGEUUMZJQIKA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643921060168},"type":"header","content":"The smallest warriors"},{"_id":"WMADAPRRKJGUNEYIGQDVYWAXOU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643307320827},"type":"text","content":"Shae Guillory knew she carried the trait, because she has a milder form of the disease, called sickle cell beta-thalassemia. She didn’t know her husband Shawn also had a trait, however. The couple had twins Saxton and Sawyer six years ago. Because she carried the trait, she asked for immediate tests. Sawyer had the disease. He had taken an S gene from his mom and and an S gene from his dad. Saxton did not."},{"_id":"Q2YHKGNWOJAVTHHN73GJHLBB3Y","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1642513388687},"type":"text","content":"The couple had already lost a set of twins during a previous pregnancy, and they were determined to save Sawyer."},{"_id":"HAIC4UZQYNHOPOXRB3UDZD5Q24","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643049125243},"type":"text","content":"“I already had to say bye to two children I so desperately wanted,” she said. “So I sat down every night and I started doing my research to find out what I could do to save my child’s life.” she said."},{"owner":{"sponsored":false,"id":"ajc"},"copyright":"Jenni Girtman","address":{},"caption":"Shea Guillory and 6-year-old twins Sawyer, left, and Saxton, right, are at their home Monday, January 17, 2022. Guillory manages the busy boys and Sawyer's sickle-cell disease while home schooling with help from her mother; while her husband works as a government contractor. 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A bone marrow transplant infuses healthy blood-forming stem cells into the body to replace damaged or diseased bone marrow. But the donor’s marrow has to match certain traits in the recipient, according to Dr. Ann Haight of Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta."},{"_id":"CJN7Z7MUJRF5JFKRDLHLA3WXCM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643307320836},"type":"text","content":"Sawyer was lucky to have Saxton. When the boys were 3, testing determined Saxton was an exact match for his brother. The operation was done that year."},{"owner":{"sponsored":false,"id":"ajc"},"address":{},"syndication":{},"caption":"Dr. Ann Haight — a physician at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, and the Aflac Cancer and Blood Center Blood Disorder Center — transplanted bone marrow from Saxton to his twin Sawyer Guillory to treat Sawyer's sickle cell anemia.nPhoto courtesy of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta n","source":{"system":"photo center","name":"AJC","edit_url":"","source_type":"staff","additional_properties":{"editor":"photo center"}},"taxonomy":{"associated_tasks":["61e0737b22f8e72b1e8edf92"]},"type":"image","distributor":{"mode":"reference","reference_id":"8aec2b8c-455c-4816-903d-79fc8fdf8019"},"version":"0.10.3","url":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/ETI7VXRAFBGB5JESH5LG5ZTM24.jpg","licensable":false,"credits":{"affiliation":[],"by":[{"name":"Photo courtesy of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta","type":"author","byline":"Photo courtesy of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta"}]},"subtitle":"sickle cell","width":1200,"_id":"ETI7VXRAFBGB5JESH5LG5ZTM24","additional_properties":{"fullSizeResizeUrl":"/resizer/H06vDrUcQv1AfRpUssuMFC0oRXo=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/ETI7VXRAFBGB5JESH5LG5ZTM24.jpg","owner":"[email protected]","comments":[],"keywords":[""],"proxyUrl":"/resizer/H06vDrUcQv1AfRpUssuMFC0oRXo=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/ETI7VXRAFBGB5JESH5LG5ZTM24.jpg","originalUrl":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/ETI7VXRAFBGB5JESH5LG5ZTM24.jpg","published":true,"resizeUrl":"/resizer/H06vDrUcQv1AfRpUssuMFC0oRXo=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/ETI7VXRAFBGB5JESH5LG5ZTM24.jpg","ingestionMethod":"manual","thumbnailResizeUrl":"/resizer/FfXNLMTLbseWn9AbVLgGb7NLTqg=/300x0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/ETI7VXRAFBGB5JESH5LG5ZTM24.jpg","version":1,"originalName":"BHM sickle cell1.jpg","mime_type":"image/jpeg","restricted":false,"template_id":594,"galleries":[],"_id":"5AH42MLATJB2REAJTJFSWJORBA"},"created_date":"2022-01-23T21:05:11Z","last_updated_date":"2022-01-23T21:06:42Z","height":801,"image_type":"photograph"},{"_id":"LXAZRFPV3BG4LM7R3NII2QRB5E","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643307320837},"type":"text","content":"The procedure was successful, said Haight, who performed the transplant."},{"_id":"O3SXC2C22JHK3JOM4QOD2RALVU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643575282342},"type":"text","content":"Thanks to his brother, Sawyer’s future is brighter."},{"_id":"4GXMHM4PXJGPFMULNLFHVTHSX4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643307320839},"type":"text","content":"Not only are they okay, but they are also like “yin and yang, they fit so perfectly together,” Shae Guillory said."},{"_id":"TGCCQVAZ65FTFOBOKFQ7PQIQIQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643310434243},"type":"text","content":"“One likes Legos, the other likes reading books; one likes tablets, the other likes guitar and music,” she said. “They kind of play off of each other, so they’re a perfect combination.”"},{"_id":"ENWNW5YYFZCZDKX57PX7PLJP2M","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"LOTLYJYRZNHRFAE6QKDNU7Q5DE"},"type":"divider"},{"_id":"FBOVTTBNUVDS7DIA3BADEEBFHE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643118194216},"type":"text","content":"RESOURCES AND SUPPORT"},{"_id":"RVIOVQZ2IVHTRP76HST4UHDZQI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643118194217},"type":"text","content":"Sickle Cell Foundation of Georgia: sicklecellga.org"},{"_id":"EIY5R2MKFZEDRG5RHNH6F22ERY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643118194218},"type":"text","content":"Sickle Cell Reproductive Education Directive (SC RED): sicklecellred.org"},{"_id":"S6A7Z4D4PFH2DEKNXT7MBPNTHQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643118194219},"type":"text","content":"The Lockhart-Morgan Foundation for Sickle Cell Anemia: www.facebook.com/lockhartmorgan"},{"_id":"ZVAUIDK6CFGHLAGQOUNQ2FZL34","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643118194220},"type":"text","content":"Sickle Cell Community Consortium: sicklecellconsortium.org"},{"_id":"EKYDIXS55JD7NFYTLQJOHXK2TE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[]},"type":"text","content":"BLACK HISTORY MONTH"},{"_id":"RUBME6S7KZFU3K2QMZEGGMSBDQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[]},"type":"text","content":"This year, the AJC’s Black History Month series will focus on the role of health and wellness in the Black community. In addition to the traditional stories that we do on African American pioneers, these pieces will run in our Living and A sections every day this month. You can also go to ajc.com/black-history-month for more subscriber exclusives on the African American people, places and organizations that have changed the world."},{"_id":"EMPC5VNRZFBUTPBYLMQEAN3KRY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1643298721640},"type":"text","content":"
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The speech was delivered April 4, 1967, exactly one year before his assassination. During the address King called for an end to racism, poverty and militarization by highlighting that Americans were being killed overseas while trying to guarantee certain rights they didn’t have at home."},{"_id":"7R36JZJ7BNGETFSZDSGDAKNLZU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1617553483436},"type":"text","content":"“We were taking the Black young men who had been crippled by our society and sending them 8,000 miles away to guarantee liberties in Southeast Asia which they had not found in southwest Georgia and East Harlem,” King famously said."},{"_id":"CFALVLN2CZBZJJF6HSYNLVCGZQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1617553483437},"type":"text","content":"The National Civil Rights Museum at the Lorraine Hotel, where King was shot in Memphis, plans a virtual commemoration this afternoon. “Remembering MLK: The Man. The Movement. 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But he also knew there was a portion of the population intent on maintaining the status quo."},{"_id":"BY5GFTI77ZDFHBKLRDC4EG2L3A","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1617481242090},"type":"text","content":"In his final speech, King acknowledged he might not live long enough to see his life’s work realized."},{"_id":"IAV7WARDCBBVXF3GK33RCI2544","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1617478720429},"type":"text","content":"“Like anybody, I would like to live a long life,” he told the crowd during the prophetic 40-minute address on the evening of April 3, 1968. “But I’m not concerned about that now. I just want to do God’s will."},{"_id":"7EYJ5MEEENES5ABYW5O5BMCKIQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1617478720430},"type":"text","content":"“He’s allowed me to go up to the mountain,” King continued. “And I have looked over and I have seen the promised land. 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The speech was delivered April 4, 1967, exactly one year before his assassination. During the address King called for an end to racism, poverty and militarization by highlighting that Americans were being killed overseas while trying to guarantee certain rights they didn’t have at home."},{"_id":"4P3K2YAFEBDADBLXFDPOZABU44","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1617478720438},"type":"text","content":"“We were taking the Black young men who had been crippled by our society and sending them 8,000 miles away to guarantee liberties in Southeast Asia which they had not found in southwest Georgia and East Harlem,” King famously said."},{"_id":"JMI65ACRWRE5PGXWTMFORS6LMA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[{"pos":215,"comment":"(5 p.m. Central time). "}],"comments":[],"_id":1617481242102},"type":"text","content":"The National Civil Rights Museum at the Lorraine Hotel, where King was shot in Memphis, plans a virtual commemoration this afternoon. “Remembering MLK: The Man. The Movement. The Moment” will be broadcast at 6 p.m. and will feature the Rev. James Lawson, a key King ally."},{"_id":"6CCRH6CKDFEPBKJQZ3NHXKQWXA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1617467007603},"type":"text","content":"Shocking news in 1968"},{"_id":"XRCJICYDB5H5PLGRF6VASEU5LE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1617467007604},"type":"text","content":"Robert F. Kennedy was in Indianapolis, campaigning for the Democratic nomination for president when he was told of the assassination. His staff tried to dissuade Kennedy from speaking to the crowd in a predominately Black neighborhood as news of riots elsewhere was beginning to spread."},{"_id":"ZSTX7VIGMNHNXFMUNEMHPABCXQ","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"KXTTTLUAEFHRTE5ZAVEE7GX73A"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"Martin Luther King Jr.: How the world heard the news of his assassination","url":"https://www.ajc.com/news/national/martin-luther-king-how-the-world-heard-the-news-his-assassination/Y1Dl8j5f1HPpzKmD8dkYPP/"},{"_id":"EI5RFRJ6RBBB3BW3PGQYH4R6PE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1617467007605},"type":"text","content":"Many people screamed in disbelief as the U.S. senator broke the news that King had been shot and killed. He then called for calm and reminded those gathered that he, too, had had a family member (his brother, President John F. Kennedy) who was assassinated."},{"subtype":"youtube","referent":{"referent_properties":{"additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":1617617786604}},"provider":"https://www.youtube.com/oembed?maxwidth=560&maxheight=340&url=","service":"oembed","id":"https://youtu.be/BCrx_u3825g","type":"youtube"},"_id":"WOJNOA6VJRA7NNLE52PMH637VI","raw_oembed":{"author_name":"Frankie Warren","provider_url":"https://www.youtube.com/","title":"Robert F. 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Riots broke out in 110 cities, thousands of homes and businesses were destroyed, and dozens were killed."},{"_id":"L4I7AXVASBGY5NGGBDCM5PUTBA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1617481242110},"type":"text","content":"Atlanta, King’s hometown and where he was senior pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church, was spared the chaos. Instead, as the assassin was still at large, Atlanta was planning the biggest funeral in the city’s history. It would host 150,000 mourners, and the eyes of a troubled world would be on Auburn Avenue."},{"_id":"QH2GLWGOGNHQPGW3FXEFYDTMEQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1617481242111},"type":"text","content":"A special look back"},{"_id":"SDJ573M7H5DMZF3AKPJNKAXAXA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1617467007607},"type":"text","content":"To mark the 50th anniversary of his death in 2018, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution published the multimedia presentation “Honoring Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.” Revisit the special coverage at https://honoringmlk.com/"}],"display_date":"2021-04-04T11:00:00Z","headlines":{"basic":"The loss of MLK: 53 years later"},"first_publish_date":"2021-04-04T11:00:00Z","taxonomy":{"sections":[{"path":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","parent":{"default":"/news"},"_website":"ajc","parent_id":"/news","name":"Black History Month","description":"Learn about black history and the story of the civil rights movement in Atlanta, the birthplace of Martin Luther King Jr. From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.","_id":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","additional_properties":{"original":{"parent":{"AmpNav":"/news","default":"/news","BottomNav":null,"SectionMap":"https://www.ajc.com/","ComposerNav":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"site":{"section_comments_enabled":"Yes","site_description":"Learn about black history and the story of the civil rights movement in Atlanta, the birthplace of Martin Luther King Jr. From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.","site_title":"Black History Month"},"navigation":{"nav_title":"Black History Month"},"inactive":false,"node_type":"section","_website":"ajc","name":"Black History Month","_id":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","ancestors":{"AmpNav":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"default":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"BottomNav":[],"SectionMap":["https://www.ajc.com/"]},"order":{"AmpNav":2016,"default":2016,"SectionMap":1133,"ComposerNav":1091}}},"type":"section","version":"0.6.0"},{"path":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","parent":{"default":"/news"},"_website":"ajc","parent_id":"/news","name":"Black History Month","description":"Learn about black history and the story of the civil rights movement in Atlanta, the birthplace of Martin Luther King Jr. From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.","_id":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","additional_properties":{"original":{"parent":{"AmpNav":"/news","default":"/news","BottomNav":null,"SectionMap":"https://www.ajc.com/","ComposerNav":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"site":{"section_comments_enabled":"Yes","site_description":"Learn about black history and the story of the civil rights movement in Atlanta, the birthplace of Martin Luther King Jr. From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.","site_title":"Black History Month"},"navigation":{"nav_title":"Black History Month"},"inactive":false,"node_type":"section","_website":"ajc","name":"Black History Month","_id":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","ancestors":{"AmpNav":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"default":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"BottomNav":[],"SectionMap":["https://www.ajc.com/"]},"order":{"AmpNav":2016,"default":2016,"SectionMap":1133,"ComposerNav":1091}}},"type":"section","version":"0.6.0"}],"primary_section":{"path":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","name":"Black History Month"},"tags":[{"text":"news.naviga"},{"text":"atlanta-news-metro.ajc"},{"text":"sepia"}]},"type":"story","last_updated_date":"2021-04-05T10:16:38.397Z","canonical_url":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr/the-loss-of-mlk-53-years-later/NRZE6MR7FRA67E4SKEYRSUXWBA/","promo_items":{"basic":{"promo_image":{"url":"https://d1fegwn2wjh0cs.cloudfront.net/01-17-2021/t_463d5007324243e0b0bcad347555a3e6_name_97d1c662ea7e43d7a796d3b4be37f352.jpg"},"credits":{},"headlines":{"basic":"A Timeline of the Life of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr."},"type":"video","promo_items":{"basic":{"caption":"A Timeline of the Life of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.","type":"image","url":"https://d1fegwn2wjh0cs.cloudfront.net/01-17-2021/t_463d5007324243e0b0bcad347555a3e6_name_97d1c662ea7e43d7a796d3b4be37f352.jpg"}}}},"_id":"NRZE6MR7FRA67E4SKEYRSUXWBA"},{"content_elements":[{"_id":"RCFMSGMR5ZAIVN6IIHV5ZR5TCY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613598087791},"type":"text","content":"The story goes like this:"},{"_id":"UX7DKUMMGVBBNKGEGM4J7LRJLA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613885296337},"type":"text","content":"It was 1967, and reviews for the first season of Star Trek were not great. Nichelle Nichols, who played Lt. Nyota Uhura, had bigger issues with the show. She found it demoralizing to see her lines cut and cut again. She had to deal with racist insults off set, as well as from executives who conspired to keep her from seeing her fan mail."},{"_id":"73ILZIUGYRHUPM4FIJNGQL6XNA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1614028709850},"type":"text","content":"At the end of the first season, Nichols recounted in her autobiography, she told the show’s creator she was done."},{"_id":"URIMZWCREVC77MPMQO6TEU5MTQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613885296338},"type":"text","content":"But the next day, at an NAACP function, a fan greeted her: Martin Luther King Jr. He told her how important her role was and how he and his family watched Star Trek faithfully and adored her in particular — the only Black character."},{"_id":"DL4VNM5S6ZEPTATPQQI6YNZ4NE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1614028709852},"type":"text","content":"Nichols thanked him, but said she planned to leave."},{"_id":"LIK7FG3CTFBAFG3I33OEN3ZRFM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613885296339},"type":"text","content":"“You cannot and you must not,” she recalls him saying. “Don’t you realize how important your presence, your character is? ... Don’t you see? This is not a Black role, and this is not a female role. You have the first non stereotypical role on television, male or female. You have broken ground."},{"_id":"2ZXKXGIS5NGURKUXZX4LTYDAQU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613885296340},"type":"text","content":"“... For the first time,” he continued, “the world sees us as we should be seen, as equals, as intelligent people — as we should be.”"},{"_id":"42Y5XK4FENBIVNNC3RMOCRZSDA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613885296341},"type":"text","content":"Nichols stayed."},{"_id":"43CGQX2YT5H45DMFLBN7WUYL6E","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613885296342},"type":"text","content":"She stayed for the next two seasons of the series, lent her voice to an animated version and appeared in a half-dozen Star Trek movies. She had the first interracial kiss in American television. She recruited for NASA. Through her work, she influenced Mae Jemison — the first Black female astronaut."},{"_id":"ICGMDAFK7FBBVP6QFOAJUUSRIU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613885296343},"type":"text","content":"By continuing on Star Trek, she had an impact on the lives of many others, including a number of metro Atlanta Black residents. Some credit Nichols’ presence on TV with giving them confidence to pursue their own interests."},{"_id":"J6BNYTY665BNXPZ5KWERILSVBI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613885296344},"type":"text","content":"Marilyn Teague, 72, said she watched Amos ‘n’ Andy as a child but didn’t know that she “wasn’t supposed to like it.” Seeing Nichols on TV was a revelation. Her character, a communications officer, spoke several languages. She was on the bridge of the Starship Enterprise. People listened to her."},{"_id":"O4XMOGIU5RDWHP5QB5ECJ2UFCM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613885296345},"type":"text","content":"“Her position there helped me get confidence in who I am,” said Teague, who lives in Doraville and became a sign language interpreter partly to emulate Lt. Uhura. “She was there at a time when we needed to see her.”"},{"_id":"7UX5HYFOCFER5OYALQBG3G5TOY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613885296349},"type":"text","content":"Tony Cade, 56, is the owner of Challenges Games and Comics and the director of the Atlanta Sci-Fi and Fantasy Expo. He first saw Nichols on screen in Star Trek reruns. It was refreshing to see a character who was not a criminal, a nanny or a maid. He said her presence reinforced to him that he could be a leader — she might not have had a lot of lines, at first, but she still commanded respect."},{"_id":"E3FJEFJZH5FD3IHMWPCFXULOGM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1614024260688},"type":"text","content":"“She inspired a lot of people. She inspired me to do a lot of the things I do,” he said. “Nichelle opened the eyes of many people who opened the eyes of many more people.”"},{"_id":"7UX5HYFOCFER5OYALQBG3G5TOY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613885296349},"type":"text","content":"Eddie Hines, 47, said Nichols’ role was a stepping stone for the Star Trek franchise, too. Now, a Black woman — Sonequa Martin-Green — plays Michael Burnham, the lead of the current series, Star Trek: Discovery."},{"_id":"EQZTHDBWRZDJ7GIAH3WLB35SMI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1614024260690},"type":"text","content":"As important as it was for Black people to see themselves represented on screen, Hines said, it was just as important for white people to see Lt. Uhura as a fully developed character."},{"_id":"V5TYENAOKRD6BKECFPWHBSY4VQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1614024260691},"type":"text","content":"“To be on the bridge and not be the cleaning lady — Black people already wanted it,” the Smyrna resident said. “To get people who did not want it to accept it is a huge leap. ... She did it through grace. She made people enjoy her performances.”"},{"_id":"JYX3ZH7LTFFXTG4TNJPD4CILLE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613885296346},"type":"text","content":"Joseph Campbell, an East Point graphic artist, doesn’t think the show would have resonated the same way had Nichols exited, as she planned."},{"_id":"IJ3GJGR6QFDLHDNA327QGOQ56U","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1614024260693},"type":"text","content":"“I’m so glad she stuck it through,” he said. “Just seeing her was like, wow, that’s me.”"},{"_id":"CFYMDHV7LNCLDN64ACFPS7FIWI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1614024260694},"type":"text","content":"Without Nichols, Campbell said, it would have taken longer for Black people — and Black women in particular — to be normalized on screen."},{"_id":"IJ3GJGR6QFDLHDNA327QGOQ56U","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1614024260695},"type":"text","content":"“She showed young kids of color that you can do it,” Campbell said. “Nichelle Nichols was our Wonder Woman, our Captain Marvel.”"},{"_id":"WO3QYT2YD5G4PHKIY4VGBYFUQA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1614024260696},"type":"text","content":"Dedren Snead was one of those kids. Snead, 45, distinctly recalls seeing Lt. Uhura on Nickelodeon — it was the first time he saw a Black woman animated."},{"_id":"EMPEGEGXPVFZRICLW7VBICEGGI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1614024260697},"type":"text","content":"It stuck with him."},{"_id":"YFUPZSVLAFGFTIBI2K55ARR7JE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1614024260698},"type":"text","content":"Snead is writing a graphic novel, “Sorghum and Spear,” that’s due out in April. One character — Eshe the All-Mother — is based on Nichols, and uses her likeness. The Snellville resident described Nichols as an icon and credits her with sparking his interest in science fiction and fantasy, merely by being on the show. Through the graphic novel, he’s had a chance to interact with her and thank her for her work."},{"_id":"SEMM2KASWNH7XJT3M2QYROI7VE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1614024260699},"type":"text","content":"“If I didn’t see her, I wouldn’t have been interested in that stuff. A lot of us didn’t see ourselves invited to that conversation,” Snead said of science fiction. “The idea of seeing yourself in the future, that’s what I got from her. You’re making a direct statement: There’s a super smart Black woman in the future. We are there. We didn’t get wiped out. We didn’t get oppressed.”"},{"_id":"7UX5HYFOCFER5OYALQBG3G5TOY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613885296349},"type":"text","content":"BLACK HISTORY MONTH: Throughout February, we’ll spotlight different African American pioneers ― through new stories and our archive collection ― in our Living and Metro sections Monday through Sunday. Go to AJC.com/black-history-month for more subscriber exclusives on people, places and organizations that have changed the world, and to see videos on the African American pioneers featured each day."}],"display_date":"2021-02-26T10:00:00Z","headlines":{"basic":"A conversation with MLK Jr. kept Nichelle Nichols from exiting Star Trek"},"first_publish_date":"2021-02-26T10:00:00Z","taxonomy":{"sections":[{"path":"/news/atlanta-news","parent":{"default":"/news"},"_website":"ajc","parent_id":"/news","name":"Local News","description":"Atlanta Georgia city and county news, as well as Georgia state and regional news at ajc.com","_id":"/news/atlanta-news","additional_properties":{"original":{"parent":{"AmpNav":"/news","default":"/news","BottomNav":null,"TopNavRedesign":null,"SectionMap":"https://www.ajc.com/","MainMenuRedesign2021":"/news","TopNav":null,"ComposerNav":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"site":{"section_comments_enabled":"Yes","site_description":"Atlanta Georgia city and county news, as well as Georgia state and regional news at ajc.com","site_title":"Atlanta Local News"},"navigation":{"nav_title":"Local News"},"inactive":false,"node_type":"section","_website":"ajc","name":"Local News","Sponsor":{"sponsor_url_open_new_tab":"true","sponsor_desktop_banner":"","sponsor_mobile_banner":"","sponsor_url":""},"_id":"/news/atlanta-news","ancestors":{"TopNavRedesign":[],"SectionMap":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"MainMenuRedesign2021":["https://www.ajc.com/","/news"],"TopNav":[]},"order":{"AmpNav":2004,"default":2004,"SectionMap":1074,"MainMenuRedesign2021":2004,"ComposerNav":1081}}},"_website_section_id":"ajc./news/atlanta-news","type":"section","version":"0.6.0"},{"path":"/news","parent":{"default":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"_website":"ajc","parent_id":"https://www.ajc.com/","name":"News","description":"Atlanta Georgia News main page: Breaking News, Atlanta Weather Forecast, Crime, Politics, GA Schools, Local Articles - 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He was one of the first Black people selected to become an astronaut in January 1978, along with Guion Bluford and Ronald McNair."},{"_id":"63EEU7G23NDVRP4OATC3TMNPEA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442804},"type":"text","content":"Happily retired, Gregory has flown hundreds of different aircraft, overseen the United States’ involvement in the International Space Station, traveled the world and commanded multiple space shuttle missions. He has spent more than 450 hours in space."},{"_id":"4KY2Y6XOQZDOZH7QJAXQJ646OY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442805},"type":"text","content":"“I was the only (African American) in my class at the Air Force Academy,” Gregory said. “And right after schools integrated in D.C., I was the only one in this formerly all-white junior high. I was in the first integrated Boy Scout troop in Washington.”"},{"_id":"JY4XULZFQVBC5LWHDLWJ6LOH44","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442810},"type":"text","content":"Gregory’s parents were teachers. His father, Francis Gregory, attended the Case Institute in Cleveland, later part of Case Western Reserve University. After graduating and teaching for a couple of years he went on to MIT, where he got a masters degree in electrical engineering."},{"_id":"OZFMHRIZDZEU5AT53ZMA5IRDII","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"XIQU2VSYSVDYFJXZ4IMXHO7RJE"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"Billie Holiday: The unforgettable Lady Day","url":"https://www.ajc.com/entertainment/music/billie-holiday-the-unforgettable-lady-day/FnS8Z4D09pQRhnUc0VyB1H/"},{"_id":"PDS5WCGL3RACNIS66LWRKFSJTE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442811},"type":"text","content":"“They had all kinds of friends. And those friends were at our house a lot. And there was one group of friends who talked with their hands and waved and talked about flying and excitement,” Gregory said. “And I’m like 5 years old, 6 years old. And I’m watching these folks and listening to how much fun they were having, and one of them offered to take me to fly.”"},{"_id":"GCJUIIVDUFDADMGVVDRLGA7E2E","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1614014700366},"type":"text","content":"Years later, he learned that many of those friends were Tuskegee Airmen."},{"_id":"W2MIQURKG5HAJLTVL6J57NOFCM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442812},"type":"text","content":"As Gregory considered applying to the astronaut program, he got a call from one of those old family friends."},{"_id":"IXXTIE5GR5EKPLMVXWUM5YN62E","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1614014700368},"type":"text","content":"“His name was Ben Davis, who I did not know was in the military,” Gregory said."},{"_id":"XBYWVJE4YVHUVA3UOVRGDIZTL4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442813},"type":"text","content":"That would be Gen. Benjamin O. Davis Jr., commander of the legendary 332nd Fighter Group, also known as the Red Tails, and the U.S. Air Force’s first Black brigadier general."},{"_id":"V7EBEPSSXJAJHAE6WP2JQWYKXI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442814},"type":"text","content":"“He called me and he said, ‘Fred, I want you to apply to the program for myself, and in honor of the Tuskegee Airmen,” Gregory said. “I’d never heard of the Tuskegee Airmen.”"},{"_id":"G6WEFIR4CZFEFMK3FZRJ7KOVQ4","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"WEUYDYW255HDDMCQNYYOZJUSMM"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"Georgia’s Critter Fixers: Black vets go from HBCUs to Nat Geo Wild","url":"https://www.ajc.com/life/georgias-critter-fixers-black-vets-go-from-hbcus-to-nat-geo-wild-disney/TMD5JICHCFGCDOLHKGPFIZU6ME/"},{"_id":"GNHE3M2XKVFUTO7ZJNKLVSTGDY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442815},"type":"text","content":"Along with Davis’ entreaty, Gregory felt drawn to apply to the astronaut program by a clever ad campaign. Nichelle Nichols, who played Nyota Uhura in the original “Star Trek,” famously volunteered to help NASA recruit more diverse astronauts."},{"_id":"R6M4LGEBDNHEVDWYYSIB2XD2YY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442816},"type":"text","content":"“The first time I met Nichelle Nichols, she was inside my television saying, ‘I want you to be an astronaut,’” Gregory said. “Others may claim she was looking at them, but no, she was looking at me.” He and Nichols would go on to become dear friends."},{"_id":"6G3CTLHZ3FB5TE352A75T5JWKQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442817},"type":"text","content":"In January 1968, Gregory found out he had been selected as an astronaut. NASA Astronaut Group 8 was the largest and most diverse ever. The group included six women and three Black men: Gregory, McNair and Bluford."},{"_id":"7SFI3M2HUBDYTOPPLZM2HHPBGU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442820},"type":"text","content":"The entire group became media sensations. Gregory was bombarded with letters of congratulations and commendations from government officials."},{"_id":"ADIWA3XNANEHNCW2PPPRGL33KA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1614014700375},"type":"text","content":"“A mail truck would come up and put a bag of mail at my house,” he said. “I have a house full of plaques because, everywhere I go, they give me a plaque. And keys to the city, or keys anywhere you want — I have one from Atlanta!”"},{"_id":"TV2KQRWH2ZCIVAVGZVNDO4X7NU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442824},"type":"text","content":"In the summer of 1978, the group began training for the debut of the space shuttle program."},{"_id":"XEX4A3TLXZBXRM7HKJE4J57AFU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442825},"type":"text","content":"“When I launched for the first time, to me, it was more like a training session,” he recalled. Simulations tended to focus on what could go wrong, so it was smooth sailing on his first eight-minute ride into space."},{"_id":"GQE6KYO2NFCEBF6I4TBOD2FOZM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442827},"type":"text","content":"“From Earth, you can only see a certain part of the heavens,” Gregory said. “It just blows your mind. You’re looking out and it’s just carpeted with stars and you realize that some of them are close — maybe only 50 light years away — and some of them are billions of light years away. We were just overwhelmed by the beauty, the vastness, the potential, the ‘where do we go next on this journey?’”"},{"_id":"IYSXK3QMFNFCNO3TVW55ZSQ2BI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442830},"type":"text","content":"Gregory’s career as an astronaut spanned from 1978 to 1991, three shuttle flights and 456 hours in space. He was one of the flight controllers at the Johnson Space Center during the space shuttle Challenger disaster, which claimed the lives of all seven crew members on board, including mission specialist Ron McNair, in 1986. (A year later, DeKalb County’s Walker High School would change its name to Ronald E. McNair High School.)"},{"_id":"PC2IVJUIONGDNFXNPPY4OKBUAU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442831},"type":"text","content":"Following his final shuttle flight, he became an associate administrator at NASA overseeing the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance. After nearly a decade in that position, Gregory had a brief stint overseeing the Office of Space Flight, the office responsible for the space shuttle and International Space Station Programs, before he was appointed as NASA’s Deputy Administrator. He retired in 2005 at age 64."},{"_id":"NONYTSYCGBGNFGXOOW5AIAAR3I","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442839},"type":"text","content":"Now 80, Gregory still sounds the part of a commanding officer. He is good-humored and curious, quick to ask questions as if he’s not the most interesting person in every conversation he has."},{"_id":"VXQCLYGHENCGHGP5L6KXVEOR6I","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442841},"type":"text","content":"“I think brilliance and the ability to understand concepts, to push the barrier, sometimes comes from a person who hasn’t been told ahead of time that it’s impossible to do something because that’s now how we’ve done it in the past,” Gregory said. “You get a mind that is free to wander, create and discover — that’s the kind of mind you want.”"},{"_id":"HGAIH57YDJEALKL2SZRKHHSCF4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442842},"type":"text","content":"He reflects on his past with a sense of awe at the stories of flight and adventure he heard at the knees of Tuskegee Airmen and a feeling that he helped carry a torch lit by those pioneering pilots."},{"_id":"FF2PQGAT2FBTPGPMHF2ZAZTFDI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613778442844},"type":"text","content":"“Heck no, I didn’t light this torch. It was handed to me by the Tuskeegee Airmen for the work they had done,” Gregory said. “I had a sense of relief when I found out that no, I wasn’t the first one. It was following in the legacy of folks earlier than me who had done even greater things and broken more barriers than me.”"},{"_id":"4LYJQMQSGVEXNOOAJRRWFWZI2U","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1614016885178},"type":"text","content":"BLACK HISTORY MONTH: Throughout February, we’ll spotlight different African American pioneers ― through new stories and our archive collection ― in our Living and Metro sections Monday through Sunday. Go to AJC.com/black-history-month for more subscriber exclusives on people, places and organizations that have changed the world, and to see videos on the African American pioneers featured here each day."}],"display_date":"2021-02-23T12:57:56.027Z","headlines":{"basic":"Former astronaut’s career links Tuskegee Airmen to International Space Station"},"first_publish_date":"2021-02-23T12:57:56.027Z","taxonomy":{"sections":[{"path":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","parent":{"default":"/news"},"_website":"ajc","parent_id":"/news","name":"Black History Month","description":"Learn about black history and the story of the civil rights movement in Atlanta, the birthplace of Martin Luther King Jr. From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.","_id":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","additional_properties":{"original":{"parent":{"AmpNav":"/news","default":"/news","BottomNav":null,"SectionMap":"https://www.ajc.com/","ComposerNav":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"site":{"section_comments_enabled":"Yes","site_description":"Learn about black history and the story of the civil rights movement in Atlanta, the birthplace of Martin Luther King Jr. From The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.","site_title":"Black History Month"},"navigation":{"nav_title":"Black History Month"},"inactive":false,"node_type":"section","_website":"ajc","name":"Black History Month","_id":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","ancestors":{"AmpNav":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"default":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"BottomNav":[],"SectionMap":["https://www.ajc.com/"]},"order":{"AmpNav":2016,"default":2016,"SectionMap":1133,"ComposerNav":1088}}},"_website_section_id":"ajc./news/martin-luther-king-jr","type":"section","version":"0.6.0"},{"path":"/news","parent":{"default":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"_website":"ajc","parent_id":"https://www.ajc.com/","name":"News","description":"Atlanta Georgia News main page: Breaking News, Atlanta Weather Forecast, Crime, Politics, GA Schools, Local Articles - Atlanta Journal-Constitution","_id":"/news","additional_properties":{"original":{"parent":{"AmpNav":"https://www.ajc.com/","default":"https://www.ajc.com/","BottomNav":null,"TopNavRedesign":null,"SectionMap":"https://www.ajc.com/","LoggedOutMenu":null,"MainMenuRedesign2021":"https://www.ajc.com/","TopNav":null,"TopicsBar":null,"ComposerNav":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"site":{"site_url":"/news/","section_comments_enabled":"Yes","site_description":"Atlanta Georgia News main page: Breaking News, Atlanta Weather Forecast, Crime, Politics, GA Schools, Local Articles - Atlanta Journal-Constitution","site_title":"Atlanta GA News | Top News Page"},"navigation":{"nav_title":"News"},"inactive":false,"node_type":"section","_website":"ajc","name":"News","Sponsor":{"sponsor_url_open_new_tab":"true","sponsor_desktop_banner":"","sponsor_mobile_banner":"","sponsor_url":""},"_id":"/news","ancestors":{"AmpNav":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"default":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"BottomNav":[],"TopNavRedesign":[],"SectionMap":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"LoggedOutMenu":[],"MainMenuRedesign2021":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"TopicsBar":[]},"order":{"AmpNav":1001,"default":1001,"SectionMap":1018,"MainMenuRedesign2021":1001,"ComposerNav":1132}}},"_website_section_id":"ajc./news","type":"section","version":"0.6.0"}],"primary_section":{"path":"/news/martin-luther-king-jr","name":"Black History Month"},"tags":[{"text":"sp-blackhistorymlk"},{"text":"black history"},{"text":"black community"},{"text":"sepia"},{"text":"ajc-sepia"},{"text":"news.naviga"}]},"type":"story","last_updated_date":"2021-10-28T03:59:23.867Z","promo_items":{"basic":{"credits":{"affiliation":[]},"subtitle":"Former astronaut’s career links Tuskegee Airmen to International Space Station","width":1176,"caption":"Fred Gregory’s career as an astronaut spanned from 1978 to 1991, three shuttle flights and 456 hours in space. Courtesy of NASA","type":"image","url":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/PQ43PLIT4BAJTPUPXRCIYBPEUM.jpg","height":662}},"canonical_url":"/news/former-astronauts-career-links-tuskegee-airmen-to-international-space-station/DWOPOYSL25EBXCRNFA4HRMYMZA/","_id":"DWOPOYSL25EBXCRNFA4HRMYMZA"},{"content_elements":[{"_id":"6234YJTYMNHAJA53F6MSQL5QME","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612214684206},"type":"text","content":"Vivien Thomas designed groundbreaking surgical equipment, developed lifesaving surgical techniques and trained countless doctors. That’s impressive for anyone, but even more so for a Black man in the segregated South who never went to college, much less medical school."},{"_id":"AWHMWKRDKZDCRBOPBX6M4ANIDY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350567337},"type":"text","content":"Born Aug. 29, 1910, in New Iberia, Louisiana, Thomas was the son of a carpenter and grandson of a slave. He grew up in Nashville, Tennessee, graduating from high school with honors in 1929."},{"_id":"QLNFKRUHWFHORFOFU7TRZ23CYI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613585136167},"type":"text","content":"That, unfortunately, was also the year of the stock market crash, and all the money Thomas had earned as a carpenter’s apprentice and saved to attend college was gone in an instant."},{"_id":"UOMFANCZARDX3M4AHG4F34GG3E","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613585136168},"type":"text","content":"A few months after being wiped out, Thomas found a job at Vanderbilt University as a lab technician, working with Dr. Alfred Blalock. Blalock was a University of Georgia graduate who earned his medical degree at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Thomas had never been in a lab before, but his intelligence and curiosity impressed Blalock."},{"_id":"44H6L3DQ6RFGHAOHCURMWMUQ6M","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613585136169},"type":"text","content":"Within days, Thomas was “doing arterial punctures on the laboratory dogs and measuring and administering anesthesia,” Katie McCabe wrote in 1989. “Within a month, the former carpenter was setting up experiments and performing delicate and complex operations.”"},{"_id":"PG5JNZHXJFFOBNIDDQVRSBAGYU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613585136170},"type":"text","content":"Despite this, Thomas was classified as a janitor like the other Black employees. For $12 a week, Thomas worked 16 hours a day or more in the lab. But Thomas’ pay increased when he told Blalock he needed to be paid the same as other lab techs."},{"_id":"KJCZI6LDRJBM7IT6EC763OIMCA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613585136171},"type":"text","content":"Blalock relied on Thomas, McCabe wrote. Blalock was “the scientist, asking the questions; Thomas the pragmatist, figuring out the simplest way to get the answers.”"},{"_id":"4AZCJDG5DZHADK7MVJ724YNVXU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613585136172},"type":"text","content":"“It was extremely difficult to tell if Dr. Blalock had the original idea for a particular technique or if it was Vivien Thomas,” Dr. Alan Woods Jr., a former intern at Johns Hopkins, told Corinne F. Hammett during an interview for News American. “They worked so smoothly together, we — the medical students — didn’t know.”"},{"_id":"TPWBKM73DBFIHPHDHUT23BB2MI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613585136173},"type":"text","content":"Their first breakthrough was in the treatment of traumatic shock, which Blalock had been researching for years. The technician and the doctor re-created in dogs the same trauma experienced by humans. Their discovery that shock was linked to a loss of fluid and blood saved the lives of countless soldiers during World War II."},{"_id":"PW2FPYVLYBCCRGPIWAQASIWH5E","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613585136175},"type":"text","content":"But that was just the beginning for the lab partners."},{"level":2,"_id":"UQHV7ZREGVGQFKEKYOERC5H6NQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613729217150},"type":"header","content":"Beginning of cardiac surgery"},{"_id":"QXCM4M3WLBAFXPBBCH4XA2AQ2A","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613729217151},"type":"text","content":"By this point, Thomas had married Clara Flanders, from Macon. Their first child, Olga Fay, was born in 1934, and a second daughter, Theodosia, arrived in 1938."},{"_id":"7WHUNBQ6U5EIZPLM4W4T4DGGJI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613585136177},"type":"text","content":"When Blalock was offered the chief of surgery position at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1941, he accepted on the condition that Thomas come with him. It was there they made history, even though Thomas received no credit at the time."},{"_id":"6R2SK733JVHGTJ4HINNTCEVSL4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613585136178},"type":"text","content":"In 1943, Dr. Helen Taussig approached Blalock about her research on “blue babies,” so called because small or obstructed passages from their heart prevented oxygen from entering the big pulmonary arteries that carry blood from the heart to the lungs."},{"_id":"KEHD3M3XJ5FRNK7JIBSNIDWIYA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613585136179},"type":"text","content":"Taussig wanted to find a way to “change the pipes around” to bring more blood to the babies’ lungs."},{"_id":"TMSI5TXR7VHQZFOEVWO245LT5M","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613585136180},"type":"text","content":"For more than a year, Thomas worked in the lab trying to re-create in dogs the malformations of the babies’ hearts and fix them."},{"_id":"RLLBX5NU5NC53PQG2M6HPHTUPE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613585136181},"type":"text","content":"The infants’ blood vessels were too small for the surgical equipment on hand, so Thomas cut down needles and sharpened them with an emery board. He created a new clamp to use on the tiny arteries."},{"_id":"WHCTFTKXORAY5IPG6ODJ3AWTWA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613678390632},"type":"text","content":"Thomas wasn’t just gifted in creating equipment, however. He was a gifted surgeon. When Blalock saw the suturing technique Thomas performed in a dog, he declared, “Vivien, this looks like something the Lord made.”"},{"_id":"EB3LTQTR4ZCYHP4XZWXDFT3MZY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613606893750},"type":"text","content":"At the time, heart surgery was unheard of. But Thomas, Blalock and Taussig were undeterred. About a year after they began their research, they performed the first operation on a “blue baby.” Doctors filled the gallery to witness history."},{"_id":"WODZY6S7EBDPZLYHYPFG5XJR2U","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613606893751},"type":"text","content":"Blalock had his lab tech Thomas stand behind him on a stepstool so that throughout the surgery, he could get Thomas’ guidance on technique."},{"_id":"ERQDJM22RZC7JK42STQD2LAAUA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613729217160},"type":"text","content":"It was the beginning of cardiac surgery."},{"_id":"V6X3QQ5ONVHH7GYWRACXGDEUHE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613606893753},"type":"text","content":"On Dec. 31, 1945, Time magazine ran an article about the surgery, touting the skills of Blalock and Taussig but never once mentioning Thomas. Photos of the surgical team excluded Thomas. A paper on the procedure in the Journal of the American Medical Association in May 1945 didn’t mention Thomas. Only those who saw the surgery knew of his contributions."},{"level":2,"_id":"3I5Q6QRWXREXTHNJU5DBDBWAD4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613606893754},"type":"header","content":"Unknown giant in Black community"},{"_id":"FAQSCVLKARGDVKIKIXHQGIGSZI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613729217163},"type":"text","content":"Before long, however, Thomas was training Johns Hopkins surgeons in the delicate techniques necessary for heart and lung operations."},{"_id":"B4ZVDBD2RNCCPGNOOBKDDBXB2I","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613606893755},"type":"text","content":"“To Blalock’s ‘boys,’ Thomas became the model of a surgeon,” Dr. Denton Cooley, who entered Johns Hopkins as a med student the same year Thomas was hired for the lab, told McCabe. “Dr. Blalock was a great scientist, a great thinker, a leader,” Cooley told McCabe, “but by no stretch of the imagination could he be considered a great cutting surgeon. Vivien was.”"},{"_id":"2QQWFUFA2FEGTOQKVKTLW4POQQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613606893756},"type":"text","content":"In 1971, his former students commissioned a portrait of Thomas, and surgeons from around the country gathered to pay homage and hang the portrait in the Blalock Building at Johns Hopkins."},{"_id":"P7POGBCTP5FGXJLP2K5NORI5LE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613606893757},"type":"text","content":"Thomas received a doctorate from Johns Hopkins in 1976, but it was an honorary doctor of laws. Restrictions prevented him from receiving a medical doctorate, but from then on he was addressed as Dr. Thomas."},{"_id":"OV2W3BVIO5FYXKAH4DPNQUVKAA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613606893758},"type":"text","content":"Johns Hopkins medical school’s four colleges are named for “legendary former faculty members.” One of those is Thomas College."},{"_id":"3EKVJAX67NHZ3KJSUJ4XD7J4UI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613606893759},"type":"text","content":"“Medical historians have reflected that Vivien Thomas is perhaps the ‘most untalked about, unappreciated, unknown giant in the African American community,’” the Thomas College website states."},{"_id":"Y6ZDMP3PMRF5VM4V3MFAXSWRYM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613606893760},"type":"text","content":"Thomas died on Nov. 26, 1985, of pancreatic cancer. He was 75."},{"_id":"WVZJMFHII5CCLFQEAVAR2VRDTM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613747472065},"type":"text","content":"If you would like to learn more about Thomas, HBO produced a movie titled, “Something the Lord Made,” starring Mos Def as Thomas and Alan Rickman as Blalock."},{"_id":"W4WUCYMTPNDLJDGWKIRWKBL3SA","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"GCDICXZNNNHDHPW7NMB3QVM3PE"},"type":"raw_html","content":"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Ocfm5sLlOM"},{"level":2,"_id":"CMWSHHEC25DRPIBSKOHH3725QE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613668326035},"type":"header","content":"BLACK HISTORY MONTH"},{"_id":"T7HL5HEYMVGKTOUJXJ73MRAZHM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613729217171},"type":"text","content":"Throughout February, we’ll spotlight different African American pioneers ― through new stories and our archive collection ― in our Living and Metro sections Monday through Sunday. 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Washington founded Tuskegee University in Alabama in 1881. Washington’s thought was, in the South, the white farmer was not going to let you work on him."},{"_id":"HJYPMNOGDFH6DO3TAZFOY6W6JY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613342768847},"type":"text","content":"“But the most important thing at that time was their mule,” Hodges said, “so he said, ‘Let’s get a veterinary school started.’ Because if we can get an African American trained as a doctor of veterinary medicine, we can work on that mule."},{"_id":"VUD3WVFISZBFRDEY42KZHVCPOI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666639},"type":"text","content":"“It was brilliant,” he continued, “because that’s the most important thing. If you’re a farmer and you’re in the Deep South, and you’ve got this mule, and this mule is dying, you don’t care who’s working on it. 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So they made their own."},{"_id":"IBCMRWU7UVERRPTK6GOX3EIBWA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613317320948},"type":"text","content":"The pair built their business from the ground up — quite literally. After finding a 1,000-square-foot space to lease, they built the walls, the exam tables and everything else they needed. They ate sandwiches every day to make ends meet."},{"_id":"622CIFZ32ZHCDGSLIDX7UTOLXE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666644},"type":"text","content":"“We definitely were qualified veterinarians,” Ferguson said, “but we were overqualified receptionists, veterinary technicians, kennel help and pooper scoopers. We had to do it all.”"},{"_id":"OEHHAU2A3RGIDF5AHDVMB4BCJY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613317320949},"type":"text","content":"That startup clinic has now grown into one of Houston County’s busiest veterinary hospitals. Critter Fixer Veterinary Hospital is more than 7,000 square feet and the only veterinary clinic in the Bonaire/Warner Robins area offering digital radiography."},{"_id":"XKOFMLKC4NCVZOE7JGNJS3DKMI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613342768853},"type":"text","content":"Clearing the path"},{"_id":"NBY6WSOLMRE73M336RCYKQFTQM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613342768854},"type":"text","content":"Critter Fixer has become not only a business success, but also a steppingstone for veterinary students."},{"_id":"2HUFNHDYQJH7XK72GW5QJXIOLE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666648},"type":"text","content":"“One thing we’re always talking about is giving that extra hand up,” Ferguson said. Their animal hospital is near Fort Valley State, and a lot of the veterinary science students have worked at Critter Fixer."},{"_id":"YVNOIPDR5JFRPMGA4QKSNLZILU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666649},"type":"text","content":"“Dr. Hodges and I have been very, very, very instrumental to being a steppingstone for them,” Ferguson said. “Of the 25-30 technicians we have, probably 75% are graduates of Fort Valley State University.”"},{"_id":"7IMSX75DBFE63BFB7IMZ2FXGWE","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"52NQ4ZGDCZGDNF56225PPQTKZU"},"type":"raw_html","content":"

"},{"_id":"4FZQIXTGLVFEPHWDMRQ2C6VDRY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666650},"type":"text","content":"They call it the Critter Fixer Family Tree, which is veterinarians they have either groomed at their hospital or written letters for to get into veterinary school."},{"_id":"FFQDYN6QYZHRFO5LG2S5N3DLQU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666651},"type":"text","content":"“And it’s up to 63 we have had a big hand in helping to become veterinarians,” Ferguson said."},{"_id":"55Q3CTPM4NEZXD22T275ZEVO4I","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666652},"type":"text","content":"Hodges added, “The veterinarians in the Critter Fixer Tree are all around the country and have gone on to do great things.”"},{"_id":"6MZWP2GSV5EGHH7UURWIFTUASM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666653},"type":"text","content":"“It’s been awesome because we know we’ve had a hand in helping with this diversity issue we have in our profession,” Ferguson said, “and we’re going to continue to do it.”"},{"_id":"FG5F75JONFBXHM77HG4GL3NTDY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666654},"type":"text","content":"First steps"},{"_id":"LGP2FE2R2VCCDMH6VT3POHFX3Q","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666655},"type":"text","content":"The doctors aren’t waiting until kids are in vet school, however, before being an influence."},{"_id":"YTYTO7WAQBA3FLRL6675UD6YS4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666656},"type":"text","content":"Ferguson has written a children’s book, “C is for Critter Fixer,” that is loosely based on his experience."},{"_id":"JKAPNUITDVBYBKQOREUDBMHEHE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666657},"type":"text","content":"He said he wrote the book because “when I was young, I didn’t see a Black veterinarian, so I said, ‘You know what? I want to let kids know that it does not matter what color you are, it doesn’t matter if you’re handicapped. Whatever your restrictions are, you can become one — even if you don’t see it.’ And the great thing is this platform on Nat Geo Wild allows people to be able to see us. It may not seem important, but I know it’s important, because I never saw that growing up."},{"_id":"ME5AFSJTNRFPDAX5VNOOJQXX7U","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666658},"type":"text","content":"“We don’t take that lightly, and that’s why we’re so involved with our community and with young adults now,” he said."},{"_id":"KB6MIUIBS5H2NN346RUBDVFHAE","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"7PVYHX54MFFDLCYZ3TLQCAUNZY"},"type":"raw_html","content":"

"},{"_id":"P4XQPPOWJBEV3HE4RQ5WHYHGTM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666659},"type":"text","content":"The doctors know there is more to being a success than just getting into vet school."},{"_id":"MEDS67UXBFGMRPC22I4YW36QCI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666660},"type":"text","content":"“Even though we talk about diversity and education, we gotta start helping with the socioeconomics,” Hodges said."},{"_id":"BMZNJNZG4JFDPPCIOAK3GQU334","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666661},"type":"text","content":"“I have a foundation that teaches socioeconomics called It Takes a Village,” he continued. “It takes groups of kids and teaches them business skills — just the basics. Then we help them develop a business. And once they come up with their idea, then we fund the business. We have kids who have started apps; they’ve started yard care businesses. Because socioeconomics is the key.”"},{"_id":"MHUJ5XRAZNDPLCNRLDUJBR4EFU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666662},"type":"text","content":"“I wanted to show people that I didn’t learn anything on Wall Street, I don’t have an MBA, but through the school of hard knocks, I learned some finance, and I wanted to teach that,” Hodges said."},{"_id":"CSZWX4FV6ZAKFM4JIYF4WBU7SE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666663},"type":"text","content":"“We have to expose them to these things more at an early age,” Ferguson added."},{"_id":"SJSY7GRRQBCV3IRO72A4FLSHAA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666664},"type":"text","content":"In the South, Hodges said, “all these kids want to be professional football players, right? Or professional basketball players. But think about it: Do you ever hear a kid say he wants to be a professional hockey player? No, because they don’t see it."},{"_id":"T2HHS2ZZIFCY5ETDSYZ4XQB4EM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666665},"type":"text","content":"“So when they see us, then they think, ‘OK, this is possible. I see this guy. I see the platform that Nat Geo or Disney has given these guys. Those guys are veterinarians,’ " he added."},{"_id":"IQFZJC6FCZBXJBTFFL2MKXRU3E","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666667},"type":"text","content":"When people think about historically Black colleges and universities, Hodges said, they think Martin Luther King Jr. and Morehouse, and George Washington Carver and Tuskegee."},{"_id":"E3IJIFQOG5CUJOJ4X7BQGODWMQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666668},"type":"text","content":"“It’s really cool to see Kamala,” he said. Harris graduated from Howard, which is an HBCU."},{"_id":"STFHOQPVJFDRZBHNRC4YNTHSTU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666669},"type":"text","content":"“Now I think people are starting to see that HBCUs produce amazing, smart people from all walks of life,” Hodges said. “And it’s so cool now, because people see Kamala, and they’re like, ‘Man, she went to an HBCU.’”"},{"_id":"FUQIPW6GRBGNJKSPY6JQCWFY2M","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613350666670},"type":"text","content":"Ferguson added: “I want people to understand that if you went to an HBCU, you can achieve just as much and maybe more than everyone else. Let’s embrace where we are. Let’s continue to be positive, professional and exude what the HBCUs have to offer.”"},{"_id":"M2EZU26I3ZFHFCYDSPLJGJG6FE","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"2LACXVZJS5EP3PHVGSHU55TGLI"},"type":"divider"},{"_id":"MRNDYQ44PNBADEL64KSRTYIBCI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613163475079},"type":"text","content":"BLACK HISTORY MONTH"},{"_id":"4QTCJQJXE5EOHHQ7TN6RBS55BY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613163475080},"type":"text","content":"Throughout February, we’ll spotlight different African American pioneers ― through new stories and our archive collection ― in our Living and Metro sections Monday through Sunday. Go to AJC.com/black-history-month for more subscriber exclusives on people, places and organizations that have changed the world, and to see videos on the African American pioneers featured here each day."},{"_id":"J5HTPO7VO5D4NBADL5UMJFHJUM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612994260053},"type":"text","content":"
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It was a triumph for hip-hop, a genre long held by some musical academics as a form less likely to produce poetic lyricism and storytelling than other popular styles. But the victory, which marked a departure for an award that had always gone to classical or jazz musicians, was for Lamar, too. Lamar followed a tradition of brilliant lyricism in hip-hop, but his award was widely praised as well-earned for the 33-year-old."},{"_id":"GV44RQZQXNHNRDXMIDKFVKJRRE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613494485546},"type":"text","content":"“Kendrick doesn’t forget he comes from a bloodline of Black musicians. Kendrick also doesn’t forget the history of America. 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It cast Lamar as his younger self, trying to navigate coming from a place where, as he puts it, kids get used to violence and feeling under siege by all the forces competing for their attention: the neighborhood, the Pirus and the Crips, the police, the family, the art and a dream."},{"_id":"BJSBGJKSDJHAZBT5LTDV66FRZU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613494485548},"type":"text","content":"By the time 2018′s “Damn” arrived, it was clear Lamar had grown, even after the feat that was “Good Kid, M.A.A.D City.” On “Damn” similar themes return, but Lamar writes about them from a different place in life. In 2012, he was rising. In 2018, he had risen and was chosen to do the soundtrack for the blockbuster movie, “Black Panther.” On “Damn”, he looks back on the corrupting and pursuing forces he faced growing up, but there is more distance, more perspective and, at times, more righteous anger."},{"_id":"Y5R45CF5D5GRJNGDLF3KJVA4CI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613494485549},"type":"text","content":"“His songs can go from discussing religion, to exploring his history with depression, and then shift to him making fun of how immature he was when he was a kid,” said Darrelyn Hughes, an attorney in Duluth. “You can dance, laugh, and cry when listening to a single Kendrick song.”"},{"_id":"GWMESS3MX5HHXP7LLKTAEPSSFA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613494485550},"type":"text","content":"While other artists preen on social media and in frequent interviews, Lamar seems to like to let the songs speak. As with many popular but private artists, he can be misunderstood and run up against a problem encountered by musicians of any genre that inspires people to dance: sometimes people just want a good beat and simple words to make them forget their troubles."},{"_id":"KUAB2VFIIRFXXG2Y5Y736C4YHY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613494485551},"type":"text","content":"All over the country, this was the reaction to Lamar’s 2012 hit, “Swimming Pools (Drank).” It had the good beat, but everyone didn’t listen close enough to the lyrics to realize the song is about losing yourself to the perils of abusing alcohol. Yet Phillips, the music journalist, heard the song at many clubs and house parties. Revelers would shout, “Pour up, drank, pour up, drank,” the ironic hook intended to inspire you to stop drinking."},{"_id":"NEEBN2DM65AGXH3TEDZJLB7PZU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613494485552},"type":"text","content":"Within a few years, Lamar was becoming less misunderstood, gaining recognition with a slew of awards."},{"_id":"J54HQEV4OJEITLRWIEHNWLM6BA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613494485553},"type":"text","content":"But the Pulitzer? It was recognition from the nation’s highbrow scribes, given out by Columbia University, no less."},{"_id":"Z634BLEWR5EP3LUOTXEZBSA45E","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613494485554},"type":"text","content":"“It was one of those things I heard about in school,” Lamar told Time magazine, “but I never thought I’d be a part of it. 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It also brought about the end of a medieval Georgia law forbidding marriage between Black and white citizens."},{"_id":"3BQFUVLOJRFTZIQ5BH7O7AS33Q","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"CN3FTDR4GFBSDARMN56GOLR62M"},"type":"interstitial_link","content":"Black History Month","url":"https://www.ajc.com/news/martin-luther-king-jr/"},{"_id":"I3LA6UKBM5GZTC5XTXW6ZBSQXA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365695},"type":"text","content":"Georgia did not change easily. It required the intervention of the U.S. attorney general on behalf of the young couple, and a restraining order against a Clayton County ordinary."},{"_id":"2KZHA2VDEJA73H6OVKY6PPDV2A","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365696},"type":"text","content":"Betty and John recognize that what happened on May 8, 1971, in Clayton County, Georgia, was a significant event."},{"_id":"2HWUMEJY75DGXHB4PDI7TOCZ7Q","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612474525285},"type":"text","content":"Just before the wedding, a Jet magazine reporter offered to accompany them to Danforth Chapel on the Morehouse College campus and tell that story, but they demurred. This was a personal occasion, not national news."},{"_id":"5TVEG6OMFNFBNK3V3WKX4HRLKI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365698},"type":"text","content":"Now they know it was both."},{"owner":{"sponsored":false,"id":"ajc"},"copyright":"Sylvia Jarrus ","address":{"street_address":"Lansing ","region":"Michigan "},"caption":"A photo of John and Betty Sanford, on their wedding day in 1971. 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She experienced a turning point in her life as a high school student during a special trip to New York and Washington, D.C. Standing outside the Supreme Court building and looking up at the inscription, “EQUAL JUSTICE UNDER THE LAW,” she had a revelation."},{"_id":"CJPF4C7T7VG4FPA2RKTCIZ7IYI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365701},"type":"text","content":"“That statement was totally not true, and it shook me to the core,” she said recently from her home in Lansing, Michigan. “Tears ran down my face.”"},{"_id":"AWKJDWM4GFEXXPNTC4R3ZHG4OU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365702},"type":"text","content":"John Sanford grew up in Valparaiso, Indiana. His father worked for U.S. Steel in Gary, Indiana, and John volunteered at the Gary Neighborhood House, a social service center in an all-Black neighborhood."},{"_id":"WLZRPAEFWVCWZMU5V5EWXG4QNM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365703},"type":"text","content":"While his life was lived at a distance from that world, his experience prompted him to study sociology at Purdue."},{"_id":"727YS545DVA5XKIATD7M42DEJY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365704},"type":"text","content":"At Purdue, he was also required to join the ROTC, and he graduated with an officer’s commission. Sanford was a second lieutenant, taking officer’s training at Fort Benning, and Byrom was working for the Urban League in Detroit when they were engaged."},{"content_elements":[{"_id":"3F3NNPESLBCNDPKW42BALUQFGU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[]},"type":"text","content":"“When I was a young girl, I said I don’t think I’d marry a white guy. I don’t even think I want to date one. If I did marry one, he’d have to be rich. I surprised myself, I’m going to tell you. When I met John, I forgot all about that.”"}],"subtype":"blockquote","citation":{"type":"text","content":"Betty Sanford"},"_id":"5Y4ANEH54FBL7BUH7BO5CQHSAY","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"75N4ZMSHEFGBXCQEZ5UKIO66WQ"},"type":"quote"},{"_id":"M4GSOJDURRHQZN7ZTDGJR2XRME","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365706},"type":"text","content":"On April 2, 1971, they posted an engagement announcement in The Atlanta Constitution and began to plan the wedding at long distance, reserving a spot at the Danforth Chapel, arranging a reception at the Phyllis Wheatley YWCA and a honeymoon in Florida."},{"_id":"OQIYX7XM3FBMDKC3KOLQ4WL3W4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365707},"type":"text","content":"The invitations went out. Relatives in South Georgia, Alabama, Indiana, New Mexico and Ohio organized travel arrangements. On Tuesday, May 4, they sought a marriage license from the Clayton County ordinary, H.W. Roberts."},{"_id":"BVCB4HFDFBGQLGVX6TNXR6K47M","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365708},"type":"text","content":"He told them it was against the law, and he would be charged with a misdemeanor if he cooperated. Then he gave them the card of a lawyer who might help them."},{"_id":"YZAILO4LJBA4PM3JUZ5PHXCQKQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365709},"type":"text","content":"John and Betty politely accepted the card, left the courthouse and drove right past the lawyer’s office. “I knew about the Loving case,” said Betty, and she was against hiring a lawyer. “We’re not paying one penny,” she said at the time. “This case has already been won.”"},{"_id":"BGKRDC7LNRDNHKPNBNKH7MCRJE","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"5RQGO7XMS5D37KEWTBVY2F6OSU"},"type":"interstitial_link","url":"https://www.ajc.com/lifestyles/how-interfaith-friendship-bolstered-the-fight-for-civil-rights/6lCGR62us56KfDx08xqwQJ/","content":"MLK and Rabbi Jacob Rotshchild: How an interfaith friendship bolstered the fight for civil rights"},{"owner":{"id":"ajc"},"workflow":{"status_code":4},"caption":"Mildred Loving and her husband Richard in 1965. Richard died in a car wreck in 1975. Mildred lived to be 68, pasing away in 2008. (AP photo)","source":{"system":"Methode","source_type":"other","source_id":"dde93560-4d99-11e7-af82-cfdcd7f8af2c","additional_properties":{"editor":"photo center"}},"type":"image","distributor":{"mode":"reference","reference_id":"8aec2b8c-455c-4816-903d-79fc8fdf8019"},"version":"0.10.3","url":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/PGXSYSRPPJJZSC7FVQTYB36G6I.jpg","licensable":false,"display_date":"2017-06-12T10:00:00Z","credits":{},"subtitle":"50 years of Loving","width":1952,"first_publish_date":"2017-06-12T10:00:00Z","_id":"PGXSYSRPPJJZSC7FVQTYB36G6I","additional_properties":{"fullSizeResizeUrl":"/photo/resize/u77-xFftHdKvEmbC-OZLixENTXU=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/PGXSYSRPPJJZSC7FVQTYB36G6I.jpg","comments":[],"proxyUrl":"/photo/resize/u77-xFftHdKvEmbC-OZLixENTXU=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/PGXSYSRPPJJZSC7FVQTYB36G6I.jpg","takenOn":"2017-06-12T10:00:00Z","originalUrl":"https://cloudfront-us-east-1.images.arcpublishing.com/ajc/PGXSYSRPPJJZSC7FVQTYB36G6I.jpg","published":true,"resizeUrl":"http://thumbor-prod-us-east-1.photo.aws.arc.pub/u77-xFftHdKvEmbC-OZLixENTXU=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/PGXSYSRPPJJZSC7FVQTYB36G6I.jpg","thumbnailResizeUrl":"/resizer/XYScCdO22H59E3qVr3ByrIsr7DI=/300x0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-ajc/public/PGXSYSRPPJJZSC7FVQTYB36G6I.jpg","version":0,"originalName":"https://www.ajc.com//rw/Pub/p8/MyAJC/2017/06/12/Images/newsEngin.18964129_125844_OBIT_LOVING_NY109.jpg","mime_type":"image/jpeg","restricted":false,"galleries":[],"_id":"GJEABKO7VBECBD6VACFCFAI5CA","publicationStartDate":"2017-06-12T10:00:00Z"},"created_date":"2020-06-27T04:33:49Z","last_updated_date":"2020-06-27T04:33:49Z","publish_date":"2017-06-12T10:00:00Z","height":1536},{"_id":"EFT5KWZ5SFHKNILHQVCKYELWME","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365710},"type":"text","content":"The Loving decision"},{"_id":"DUPLIXW7QNA6LP2255XEXPJAOY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612474525299},"type":"text","content":"In 1958, a Virginia couple named Richard and Mildred Loving were sentenced to a year in prison for marrying each other. They were arrested after police raided their home in the middle of the night, shining a flashlight in their faces as they slept in their own bed."},{"_id":"Y3QP2R5LIVAE7ICDUR56XLBDLY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365711},"type":"text","content":"Their appeals reached the U.S. Supreme Court in 1967, which found in their favor and vacated the Virginia law against interracial marriage."},{"_id":"GVVSQCDE2VFMRHLSEFTYVQ2ODM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365712},"type":"text","content":"That ruling instantly voided so-called anti-miscegenation state laws elsewhere, said scholar Jane Dailey, though states fought against the change."},{"_id":"K25IUF4PYFH2JFERNQAOEXQEWQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365713},"type":"text","content":"Dailey, author of “White Fright,” and professor of history at the University of Chicago, said some states, such as Alabama, thought they could permanently protect laws against interracial marriage by including them in the state constitution. It didn’t work."},{"_id":"R2I7UZH4ORDFBMEU26AWW4FZJA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365714},"type":"text","content":"Dailey’s book details the way white Southerners sought to reinforce Jim Crow laws by exploiting fears of marital relations between the races. In Georgia, the strategy worked until 1971."},{"_id":"42QAK3MVHRHPZN5OUWPKZ6W2EI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365715},"type":"text","content":"It is difficult to know whether a Georgia marriage license may have been granted to another interracial couple before the Sanfords were wed. Anne Sodini Emanuel, former associate dean of the Georgia State University Law School, said despite the fact that Georgia’s law was vacated by the 1967 decision, it was still on the books, and “the likelihood a county clerk would still honor it is not remote.”"},{"owner":{"id":"ajc"},"copyright":"Sylvia Jarrus ","address":{"street_address":"Lansing ","region":"Michigan "},"caption":"John and Betty Sanford, stand for a portrait at home in Lansing, Michigan on February 3, 2021. 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Family members were en route to Georgia. The cake was ordered. She already had a dress."},{"_id":"SJHSDZQS6ZAXJCSCECOEKHANOM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365717},"type":"text","content":"Growing desperate, they asked for assistance from John’s military authorities, from the ACLU and from Georgia state Rep. Julian Bond."},{"_id":"ZR6G6GCKRRF2JLTQY3PEIMII6A","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365718},"type":"text","content":"All were willing to help, but none could produce a license in four days. The minister they had reserved backed out, citing the lack of a license."},{"_id":"YP2XY4YOPNA2RKQVNWERPD2MNA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612481343671},"type":"text","content":"Betty asked her brother-in-law, the Rev. Ernest M. Bradford, if he would officiate. Bradford had marched on Selma with John Lewis and the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. He wasn’t scared."},{"_id":"BBF57KMEABAVPBWNTUOET3VR5I","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365719},"type":"text","content":"“Betty came up with an idea,” said John. “That idea,” said Betty, “was to call the U.S. attorney general’s office in Washington. That’s when things started rolling in our favor.”"},{"_id":"XTFGSAEX6VCY3GRDBJHNN272XA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365720},"type":"text","content":"The attorney on their case assured them that they could proceed with the wedding, and that by the time they returned from their honeymoon, they would have a license."},{"_id":"YT356O3FIJH7LAXXAEBVC2SKDE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365722},"type":"text","content":"The Sanfords enjoyed their May 8 ceremony, their three-tiered wedding cake, and their drive through Florida. When they returned, the U.S. attorney told them Clayton County was ready to issue a license. Betty insisted that the license be dated May 8."},{"_id":"VRXCMDX2UFBF7KA337HSJUGRV4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612405277293},"type":"text","content":"“I didn’t think my marriage license date should suffer because of Georgia being out of compliance,” she said."},{"_id":"Z2GCM7F2PVFTJGOS5FC2ZJ55SI","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"HSAEGCN5AVFSPC2Q3JUU3LJJKA"},"type":"interstitial_link","url":"https://www.ajc.com/news/atlanta-news/claude-mundy-atlantas-first-black-officer-killed-in-the-line-of-duty/UU4SQAVDEFGVNG2FELXDTVBKQY/","content":"Claude Mundy: Atlanta’s first Black officer killed in the line of duty"},{"owner":{"sponsored":false,"id":"ajc"},"copyright":"Sylvia Jarrus ","address":{"street_address":"Lansing ","region":"Michigan "},"caption":"John and Betty Sanford, sit for a portrait at home in Lansing, Michigan on February 3, 2021. 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His parents and her parents both cautioned that the world could be hurtful."},{"_id":"PBH4XQMIAFGHFMVDSQ365OXFPQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365726},"type":"text","content":"John said that the first 10 years of their married life were spent on military bases, and that made things easier. He served two years in Army active duty and eight years as a civilian with the American Red Cross Service to Armed Forces. (According to Dailey, interracial marriage is more common among those serving in the armed forces than in other demographics.)"},{"_id":"NCSGHNQWWVC55GGYVRHSN7DFUY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365727},"type":"text","content":"After their two sons, Jawara and Mani, were born, they didn’t give them “the talk” or stress racial lines, and they didn’t tell them about their conflict with the state of Georgia until many years later."},{"_id":"35HVHPFSGJHEZLHW255ZK3DZ5A","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612405277301},"type":"text","content":"“I didn’t want them to grow up with some of the anger I had growing up, so I didn’t talk to them a lot about the lesson people give their kids about police,” said Betty."},{"owner":{"id":"ajc"},"copyright":"Sylvia Jarrus ","address":{"street_address":"Lansing ","region":"Michigan "},"caption":"John and Betty Sanford, stand for a portrait at home in Lansing, Michigan on February 3, 2021. 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The vice president of the United States is not only a Black woman, but she is married to a white man."},{"_id":"S5CS55YEOFD2JGI3V7XEOCE2IQ","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365732},"type":"text","content":"At the Democratic convention, when Kamala Harris and her family came out onstage, “I remember thinking, ‘what a beautiful rainbow of colors,’” said Betty. “To see that in America is so gratifying, I think it will do a lot to change attitudes.”"},{"_id":"WIYUN2U73BHGVKJZ7YRT3EMTEU","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612473365733},"type":"text","content":"In 2017, Betty and John spoke before some 100 members of the Unitarian Universalist Church of Greater Lansing about their journey and about their debt to Richard and Mildred Loving. “They paved the way for us,” said Betty. “I feel like I’m indebted to them. Nobody walked in our bedroom and shined a light in our face at night.”"},{"_id":"PB2D6RSXDNHNFGORVZ5NUTGRMY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612474525323},"type":"text","content":"Their plans for Valentine’s Day — and for their 50th anniversary on May 8 — are somewhat muted by COVID-19. The two have been playing it safe, and don’t even go to the grocery store, preferring to have their food delivered. They plan to capture their life in a video that can be shared with family and friends."},{"_id":"OHS6HKJ3DBCKHFYKO5G2WK57BI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612474525324},"type":"text","content":"The freedom that they made possible however, will be shared by many Georgia couples, and couples around the country."},{"_id":"B7JHAGZNXZH4FFYST2RYW6WC4M","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612474525325},"type":"text","content":"What their experience proves, said Betty Sanford, is that while love may not conquer all, “it conquers a lot.”"},{"_id":"BHGNUZUZ55B63CGMP2UMZFNR7Y","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"SHRJ5F37RFBCJPFGNM7VJ25D54"},"type":"divider"},{"level":2,"_id":"FNXWDU4JFVEQVIYT3KWTH73QRE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612359068619},"type":"header","content":"BLACK HISTORY MONTH"},{"_id":"XASDEOWYXZCL3I3RVZKQBPYLJA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1612481005260},"type":"text","content":"Throughout February, we’ll spotlight different African American pioneers ― through new stories and our archive collection ― in our Living and Metro sections Monday through Sunday. 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So the Globetrotters added gags and ball-handling tricks in the middle of games. The shift gave players a breather and limited the margins of their victories, increasing the odds that they might be booked for return visits."},{"_id":"TMMIGHWEE5FG7K6JQKEZAB7UN4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613075566196},"type":"text","content":"Even early on, the clowning sparked controversy. The owner of the New York Rens, another powerhouse Black team, accused the Globetrotters of being Uncle Toms who were performing minstrel shows full of demeaning racial stereotypes, Green said."},{"_id":"AQ2BFDLE2RD5ZD7ZE3V2HP2BMA","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613075566197},"type":"text","content":"Nonetheless, the Globetrotters became the stronger and better known team. In a 1953 column, an Atlanta Constitution sports editor described the Globetrotters as “the most watched athletic team in the world.”"},{"_id":"AZFEUM2C6BHXDOIAO6VIE5DHLM","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613075566199},"type":"text","content":"Saperstein tried to keep the near-monopoly he had on the nation’s best Black players and initially fought NBA plans to integrate, Green said. Later, future Hall of Famers Reece “Goose” Tatum and Marques Haynes complained Saperstein underpaid them."},{"owner":{"sponsored":false,"id":"ajc"},"address":{},"caption":"NBA star Wilt Chamberlain, right, was a member of the Harlem Globetrotters for its 1958-59 season. Chamberlain, seen here with Globetrotters owner Abe Saperstein, joined the team when the NBA forced him to wait a year before allowing him to join an NBA team. 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The team, which included some players of different races, said it was drawing more than 2 million fans a year."},{"_id":"GG42DBOHGVGVRP3BAP6L2XDVT4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613075566211},"type":"text","content":"Globetrotters coach “Sweet Lou” Dunbar recalled growing up in segregated Louisiana and watching the team."},{"_id":"WTFRZHM7XZA3TF7QGEYAV2WYC4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613075566212},"type":"text","content":"“You have to give homage to those guys for all the sacrifices they went through,” he said."},{"_id":"LJCKKRFMCZDW3KGI6LJZ23D2OE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613075566214},"type":"text","content":"BLACK HISTORY MONTH: Throughout February, we’ll spotlight different African American pioneers ― through new stories and our archive collection ― in our Living and Metro sections Monday through Sunday. Go to AJC.com/black-history-month for more subscriber exclusives on people, places and organizations that have changed the world, and to see videos on the African American pioneers featured here each day."}],"display_date":"2021-02-12T10:00:00Z","headlines":{"basic":"Harlem Globetrotters faced racial tension, brought basketball thrills"},"first_publish_date":"2021-02-12T10:00:00Z","taxonomy":{"sections":[{"path":"/news/business","parent":{"default":"/news"},"_website":"ajc","parent_id":"/news","name":"Business","description":"Atlanta business news, Georgia company news, blogs and videos from The Atlanta Journal-Constitution","_id":"/news/business","additional_properties":{"original":{"parent":{"AmpNav":"/news","default":"/news","BottomNav":null,"TopNavRedesign":null,"SectionMap":"https://www.ajc.com/","MainMenuRedesign2021":"/news","ComposerNav":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"site":{"section_comments_enabled":"Yes","site_description":"Atlanta business news, Georgia company news, blogs and videos from The Atlanta Journal-Constitution","site_title":"Atlanta Business news and updates"},"navigation":{"nav_title":"Business"},"inactive":false,"node_type":"section","_website":"ajc","name":"Business","_id":"/news/business","ancestors":{"AmpNav":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"default":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"BottomNav":[],"TopNavRedesign":[],"SectionMap":["https://www.ajc.com/"],"MainMenuRedesign2021":["https://www.ajc.com/","/news"]},"order":{"AmpNav":2006,"default":2006,"SectionMap":1038,"MainMenuRedesign2021":2005,"ComposerNav":1082}}},"type":"section","version":"0.6.0"},{"path":"/news","parent":{"default":"https://www.ajc.com/"},"_website":"ajc","parent_id":"https://www.ajc.com/","name":"News","description":"Atlanta Georgia News main page: Breaking News, Atlanta Weather Forecast, Crime, Politics, GA Schools, Local Articles - 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n

At Fort Pulaski, millions of bricks had to be made, shipped to Cockspur Island, and then put into the fort...

Posted by Fort Pulaski National Monument on Monday, February 8, 2021

","provider_url":"https://www.facebook.com","_id":"https://www.facebook.com/FortPulaskiNPS/posts/4044483868919636","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":1613072279265},"provider_name":"Facebook","type":"facebook-post","version":"1.0"},"type":"oembed_response"},{"_id":"I7KCLA2OEJBBPGI53FJZBJAPJI","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613069278481},"type":"text","content":"“Making a brick in the 19th century was a laborious and messy process,” read the Feb. 8 Facebook post. “Soil had to [be] mixed with water and then stomped into clay. Debris like sticks and stones and had to be removed and the wet mixture placed in a wooden mold. Then the still-wet brick had to removed from the mold and allowed to dry for several days before finally being placed in a kiln to harden for nearly a week. Once the brick itself was made, it then had to be transported to the construction site for use in the building project.”"},{"_id":"NF672XR5P5DFXGINNTF63DYLOI","additional_properties":{"comments":[],"_id":"O3SEBKLY5VCXTFRM3YITTTJTPM"},"type":"interstitial_link","url":"https://www.ajc.com/life/black-history-month-2021-how-you-can-mark-the-celebration/43LAXKMW3VGDRMXIMPYRUUL4UA/","content":"Black History Month 2021: How you can mark the celebration"},{"_id":"XSTLJLURZ5DJXHCBTRE2O7PT4M","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613069278483},"type":"text","content":"Most of the Fort Pulaski brickmakers were enslaved people who were not only men and women, but children. They labored daily to make bricks “for a fort built to protect the port made rich from their labor,” the post read."},{"_id":"TWOOHNHUDZBV7JP7G7NVQYVZOY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613069278484},"type":"text","content":"“Though it took eighteen years for Fort Pulaski to be completed, the names and stories of the enslaved people who made the bricks for the fort have been hidden and, in many cases, lost,” it continued."},{"_id":"KR7HEKIEYNBDZAMFPZKYIZFS3Y","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613069278485},"type":"text","content":"Since the bricks had to be made by hand, however, fingerprints and handprints would often be left behind. According to the post, they “serve as a tangible reminder that while the architecture and the military history of the fort may be impressive, there is another vitally important story that sits right in front of our eyes if we only just look for it.”"},{"_id":"LL7NB3BKHVDERANNVOO6UUFXJE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613069278486},"type":"text","content":"According to National Park Service guide Elizabeth Smith, enslaved people had a pivotal part in not only the construction of Fort Pulaski but its maintenance."},{"_id":"JFH6NVQDCRHT7M42JMQF2DHIZE","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613069278487},"type":"text","content":"As is the case with many stories of enslaved people, however, “sadly very little information is known about any individuals or even what it was like,” she told The Civil War Picket."},{"_id":"CR6X7BR6VVCZDB3PD6OYU3XJAY","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613069278488},"type":"text","content":"You can visit the Fort Pulaski National Monument near Savannah during reduced hours. Limited site access is available, however, so visit the website for details."},{"_id":"VH6PVFQOCNGKJIMV4R3JF5KZY4","additional_properties":{"inline_comments":[],"comments":[],"_id":1613069278489},"type":"text","content":"
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